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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A failed SAE-192 carbon steel tube from a 6.2-MPa (900-psig), 200-Mg/h (180-ton/h) capacity refinery boiler was analyzed to determine its failure mode. Optical and SEM examination results were combined with knowledge of the boiler operating conditions to conclude...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract The shafts on two centrifugal pumps failed during use in a petroleum refinery. Light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyze the damaged materials to determine the cause of failure. The results showed that one shaft, made of duplex stainless...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A pressure vessel failed causing an external fire on a nine-story coke gasifier in a refinery power plant. An investigation revealed that the failure began as cracking in the gasifier internals, which led to bulging and stress rupture of the vessel shell, and the escape of hot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Tube failures occurred in quick succession in two boiler units from a bank of six boilers in a refinery. The failures were confined to the SAE 192 carbon steel horizontal support tubes of the superheater pack. In both cases, the failure was by perforation adjacent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001346
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Alloy UNS N08800 (Alloy 800) tubes of the steam superheating coils of two hydrocracker charge heaters in a refinery failed prematurely in service. Failure analysis of the tubes indicated that the failures could be attributed to thermal fatigue as a result of temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...Abstract Abstract After being in service for ten years, two admiralty brass heat-exchanger tubes from a cooler in a refinery catalytic reforming unit cracked circumferentially in the area of U-bends. A blunt transgranular cracking with minimal branching propagating from the inside surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0091594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...Abstract Abstract Two leaks were discovered at a sulfur recovery unit in a refinery. The leaks were at pipe-to-elbow welds in a 152 mm (6 in.) (NPS 6) diam line, operating in lean amine service at 50 deg C (120 deg F) and 2.9 MPa (425 psig). Thickness measurements indicated negligible loss...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...Abstract Abstract A tubular heat exchanger in a refinery reformer unit leaked after one month of service. The exchanger contained 167 type 304 stainless steel U-bent integral-finned tubes. Cracks in the tube wall were revealed during examination. Hardness of the tube was found to be 30 HRC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of small cracks at the root of the weld. The cleavage mode of fracture was confirmed by SEM. The presence of extensive secondary cracking and twinning (Neumann bands) where the fracture followed the line of the shroud-support ring was revealed by metallography. It was revealed by refinery maintenance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...Abstract Abstract This article illustrates the use of the American Petroleum Institute (API) 579-1/ASME FFS-1 fitness-for-service (FFS) code (2020) to assess the serviceability and remaining life of a corroded flare knockout drum from an oil refinery, two fractionator columns affected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses pressure vessels, piping, and associated pressure-boundary items of the types used in nuclear and conventional power plants, refineries, and chemical-processing plants. It begins by explaining the necessity of conducting a failure analysis, followed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of 3.175 mm (⅛ in.). According to the refinery, bend forming of the failed tube ( Fig. 1 ) was performed on site during assembly of the line. Failure occurred by through-thickness cracking and was detected due to leakage of the contained gas. To determine the cause of cracking, a series of laboratory...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... The Failure Results of Laboratory Investigation Analysis of Failure Conclusions Acknowledgments References References 1. Lobley G.R. , Stress corrosion cracking: Cases in refinery equipment . In: Environment-induced cracking of materials , Proceedings of 2nd International...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... is a reaction which has long been known. According to Wilson [ 1 ], one case of graphitization in tubes of a thermal cracking furnace in an oil refinery was reported in the United States in 1935. The incident aroused no interest, as the graphite nodules had a random distribution, and the analysis showed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... for Metals at Elevated Temperatures , Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. , Vol 46 , 1954 , p 113 – 118 11. API Standard 530: Calculation of Heater-Tube Thickness in Petroleum Refineries , 7th ed. , American Petroleum Institute , 2015 12. API Standard 530: Calculation of Heater-Tube Thickness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...) Inconel Alloy 690 (N06690) (0.03% C max.) would be a highly resistant alloy to stress relaxation cracking. Many typical alloys for use within refineries and chemical and petrochemical facilities contain levels of C (0.05 – 0.2%), Al (0.1 – 0.5%), and Ti (0.1 – 1.5%), which can lead to stress relaxation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Practices Material Defects Elevated-Temperature Concerns Corrosion Allowances Leak-before-Break The leak-before-break design approach is prevalent in pressure-containing equipment such as pressure vessels and piping used in the nuclear and fossil-fuel power-generation plants, refineries...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Petroleum Institute Recommended Practice 571, “Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the Refining Industry,” identifies five types of SCC (chloride, caustic, polythionic acid, wet H 2 S-SCC, and ammonia) experienced by crude units in petroleum refineries ( Fig. 2 , Ref 6 ). In industrial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... media found in refineries, paper mills, and chemical plants. When conducting investigations and determining how a component or structure failed or may fail, the end users of those items often want to determine if their other equipment is fit for service. Many analytical methodologies are employed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of austenitic stainless steels studied by using an electrochemical minicell . Corros. Sci. 50 , 1184 – 1194 ( 2008 ) 10.1016/j.corsci.2008.06.016 4. Lobley G.R. : Stress corrosion cracking case studies: in refinery equipment . In: Proc. 6th Saudi Engineering Conference KFUPM , Dhahran...