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Reactions (chemical)

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
...Abstract Abstract This investigation characterizes five surgical stainless steel piercings and one niobium piercing that caused adverse reactions during use, culminating with the removal of the jewelry. Chemical composition shows that none of the materials are in accordance with ISO standards...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... by the chemical reaction that corroded the internal tube surface. Steel embrittled by hydrogen can be restored only if grain boundary cracking or decarburization had not occurred but since the material embrittled in this manner, its replacement was recommended. Boiler tubes Cracking (fracturing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... inside a reaction tower. The scrubbed stream is directed to the burner before being released to the air. The average working temperature, pressure, and chemical composition of the gas stream before entering the reaction tower are presented in Table 1 . In cases where a pressure drop occurs, the flow...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in the failed compressor Impellers Mechanical properties Melting Reactions (chemical) Rubbing Aluminum-silicon alloy (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) failure Background Visual Examination Testing Procedure and Results Discussion Conclusions References References 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... lamination and crack in the tank wall adjacent to the tank nozzle. The mechanism of failure was overpressurization of the railroad tank car caused by a chemical reaction of the butadiene contents. The interrelationship of the mode, mechanism, and consequences of failure is reviewed to reconstruct...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001713
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... be isolated from water and excessive heat. Water leaking into the vessel through a graphite seal may have initiated the reactions that caused the accident. Blenders Chemical processing equipment Explosions Stainless steel (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) failure Ductile fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091726
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract In January 1965, a Reaction Control System (RCS) pressure vessel (titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V) on an Apollo spacecraft cracked in six adjacent locations. It used N2O4 for vehicle attitude control through roll, pitch, and yaw engines, and was protected from the N2O4 by a Teflon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... reaction within the tube) and then fractured, which allowed molten salt to flow into the tube. Chemical processing industry Chemical reactors Fused salts, environment Overheating Tubing St 35.8 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Background Visual of General Examination Physical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: Inhibitors are defined as a chemical substance or combination of substances that, when present in the environment, prevent or reduce corrosion without significant reaction with the components of the environment. Chemical treatment or inhibitors can be used for corrosion control in aqueous environments...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... penetration. For the S + L case, the corrosion resistance of structural ceramics to molten salts determines their usefulness as components in the chemical industry, such as pumps and heat exchangers. The S + G type of reaction is important for structural ceramics used as kiln furniture in industrial furnaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... reactions and are most frequently found in chemical process streams. All the aforementioned reactions are quite similar: they consume electrons. The aforementioned partial reactions can be used to interpret virtually all electrochemical corrosion problems. Consider what happens when iron is immersed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the macromolecular chains, reducing molecular weight, and diminishing polymer properties as a result. Each of these effects is examined in subsequent paragraphs. Plasticization, Solvation and Swelling Environmental Stress Cracking Polymer Degradation by Chemical Reaction Surface Embrittlement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract Several hundred leaks were reported in the type 304 stainless steel pipelines, vessels, and tanks of a chemical plant at a tropical location within a few weeks after startup. Investigation of the failure involved a site visit, metallographic examination and analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... W.B. , Chemical Thermodynamics of High Temperature Reactions in Metal Dusting Corrosion , Corrosion , Vol 19 , 1963 , p 360t 11. Grabke H.J. , Krajak R. , and Müller-Lorenz E.M. , Metal Dusting of High Temperature Alloys , Mater. Corros. , Vol 44 , 1993 , p 89...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., nitrogen, phosphorus, trace metals, etc.) for cell renewal and growth. An understanding of these factors can sometimes help in failure investigations. Energy may be derived from sunlight through photosynthesis or from chemical reactions. The importance of photosynthetic metabolism is limited in the context...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... that the failure was hydrogen-induced. The hydrogen was probably generated by the steam-iron reaction. The source of steam on the flue gas side could be traced to a cracked fillet weld in the boiler The failure mode was unusual in that the attack was found to originate from the flue gas side of the tube rather...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... and Hoyt W.B. , Chemical Thermodynamics of High Temperature Reactions in Metal Dusting Corrosion , Corrosion , Vol 19 , 1963 , p 360t 10.5006/0010-9312-19.10.360 14. Grabke H.J. , Krajak R. , and Müller-Lorenz E.M. , Metal Dusting of High Temperature Alloys , Mater. Corros...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Surface Examination Metallography Chemical Analysis/Identification Mechanical Properties From the test results, it is evident that, during the operation of the hydrogen plant, a gas carburizing reaction took place between the reformer gases and the stainless steel. The type 304 stainless...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0047335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... section at the hole area showed that the porosity extended a considerable distance into the pipe wall. Metallographic examination revealed a graphite structure distribution expected in centrifugally cast iron with a hypoeutectic carbon equivalent. Chemical analyses of a nonporous sample had a composition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...; counts live and dead cells Quantitative polymerase chain reaction Number of microbes Corrosion coupons Corrosion rate; pitting Laboratory Trailing Source of biofilm samples for MPN, polymerase chain reaction; time-averaged rates Sessile Pressure drop Friction factor On site Leading...