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Radiography

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0060144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... was instigated as a result of the failure. It was concluded after laboratory radiography and macroexamination that if the fissure were large enough to show on a radiograph, either with or without the catalyst, the tube could be expected to fail within one year. The set up for in-service radiograph examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., about 2 in. long, developed at the approximate mid-length of the vessel, and allowed slow de-pressurization. Subsequent examination by radiography and ultrasonic means indicated the crack was associated with an irregularly shaped, laminar type of defect located within the wall of the vessel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091384
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... perforations and cracking along its axis. The perforations and the crack were at the 6 o'clock position. Investigation (visual inspection, radiography, unetched macrographs, and tensile testing) supported the conclusion that the failure occurred as result of years of exposure to ground water in the soil...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... cause of failure was concluded to be exfoliation of the scale from the ID surface of the tube. Creep failures were interpreted to be caused by localized temperatures higher than the maximum service temperature. Replacement of the affected tubes was recommended. Inspection of the tubes by radiography...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... and measured 1.5 m (58 in.) in diameter and 8.5 m (28 ft) in length. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, radiography, dye-penetrant inspection, and hydrostatic testing of all E-Brite welds, 4x images, 100x/200x images electrolytically etched with 10% oxalic acid, and V-notch Charpy testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... of this magnitude could be revealed by radiography or ultrasonics but it would be difficult to detect the presence of cracks in course of development from the defects. It would be more prudent to ensure that welded links of this type were free from internal cavities before being put into service. Chains...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... studied by visual inspection, hardness traverses, radiography, dye penetrant inspection, chemical analysis, macrometallography, optical microscopy, and electron microscopy. The crown of one piston had a rough, crumbly deposit, which was detachable with a knife. Two pistons had remains of carbonaceous...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in 20% of the parts. Radiography at the tip region of representative thermowells showed linear indications along the axes. SEM examination revealed the presence of longitudinally oriented nonmetallic inclusions that were partly retained and partly dislodged. Electron-dispersive x-ray analysis indicated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Although no cracks were found when the welds were visually inspected, X-ray radiography showed small discontinuous surface cracks adjacent to the weld bead in the heat affected zone. Further investigation, including optical microscopy, microhardness testing, and residual stress measurements, revealed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... radiography surface discontinuities surface inspection ultrasonic inspection NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT), also known as nondestructive evaluation (NDE), includes various techniques to characterize materials without damage. The methods of NDE involve dimensional metrology, visual examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of a carburising processes. Metal dusting attacks the inner surface of HyL III radiation heat exchanger pipes in generating crater-like pits. Thickness of the pipes is generally reduced very much, very quickly. X-ray radiography can be used to identify the pits by showing black spots in the film. In order...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of shrinkage cavities. This problem can be resolved by providing a smooth contour at the junction of thin and thick sections and by proper risering. These recommendations were subsequently adopted by the manufacturer, and the resultant cast components were found to be sound and defect free. Radiography...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001068
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Gamma radiography examination of the fourth tank, in which no water was found, revealed no defects. However, severe atmospheric corrosion was observed on the outside surface. After removal from storage, four stainless steel tanks were found to be severely corroded inside as well as outside...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and Recommendations Radiography Ultrasonic Examination Visual Scanning Electron Microscopy/Fractography Crack Origins/Paths Material and Weld Corrosion Deposits Hardness Tensile Properties Because mercury had been detected in the process just upstream from the piping failure, mercury...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and Recommendations Non-Destructive Evaluation Surface Examination Metallography Chemical Analysis/Identification Mechanical Properties Stress Analysis Most Probable Cause Remedial Action How Failure Could Have Been Prevented Radiography Liquid Penetrant Examination Ultrasonic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... failure analysis applications. Backscatter x-ray imaging, computed radiography, digital radiography, and computed tomography (CT) are available to investigate the volume of the component where traditional RT and UT techniques may not be feasible due to part size, geometry and material properties. CT...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... samples, contained: The sample containing the circumferential weld was examined using radiography and was found to be acceptable. Radiography of the samples containing the longitudinal seam weld detected only one sample with a crack, which ran parallel to the weld seam. Longitudinal and transverse...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and qualification welds. Thus, the initial inquiries into the cause of weld porosity focused on process control. Two process differences between the production and development welds were noted: The outer container test welds (welds intended for evaluation by radiography [RT] and metallography) used a surrogate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0089563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... reveals internal voids, such as gas porosity or shrinkage porosity, but does not detect a crack or a cold shut, unless the plane of the imperfection is nearly parallel to the x-ray beam and unless there is a finite opening; a cold shut that has its faces in contact is rarely revealed by radiography...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to the bomb. The skin and associated components are made of low carbon steel. NAWCWD shipped several of each type of conical fins to ARL for examination. Among other characteristics, attention was focused on the integrity of the plug welds. ARL performed radiography, tensile testing, visual examination...