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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... interaction with gamma radiation) and to prevent corrosion. A number of failures have occurred over the years because of a loss of the He cover gas in the assembly. This has resulted in either acid attack on the Inconel 600 sheath in a wet environment or gaseous corrosion in a dry environment. In the latter...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... at a change in diam. A circular recess below the keyway surface was revealed at each end of the keyway. A sharp corner at the end of the keyway was revealed by examination to be the origin of fracture. Beach marks were found radiating from the origin over a large portion of the fracture surface which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... corrosion. What caused the basket to fail was the presence of corrosion-fatigue cracks or fissures radiating from the holes. A secondary cause was that the scantlings of the basket were too light. Extractors Fe-2.05Ni-0.91Cr-0.22Mo Corrosion fatigue Galvanic corrosion The hydro-extractor was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... power plants that sets them apart from other failed components is the likely presence of radioactive contamination. In virtually all cases, the failed components come from areas of the plant that receive no significant neutron radiation from the reactor core, so no bulk activation of the component has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... neutrons passing through or reflecting from test object cast shadows or patterns on film or digital imaging plates Manufacturing, weld inspection, finding objects in closed containments, metrology of enclosed objects, thickness Hazardous radiation operation; not sensitive to discontinuities less than 1–2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0046079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... microstructure of the steel sheet. 400x The orchard heaters were pipes, generally 150 to 305 mm (6 to 12 in.) in diameter and 60 to 120 cm (24 to 48 in.) in length. When in use, fuel was burned inside a pipe, which served as a windguard and a heat sink, and heat was transferred to nearby trees by radiation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... marks indicative of fatigue. Figure 4 shows an enlarged fractograph from the other side of the crosshead. Again, the beach marks appear to radiate from the weld-repair region. The cracks initiated at multiple sites and finally formed a single front. The twisted region at the left end of the specimen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001130
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... ( Fig. 1 and 2 ). Fig. 1 Initiation of crack (upper left), two rows from complete fracture (right). 1.3×. Fig. 2 Typical multiple cracks radiating from a punched hole in the reinforcing steel sheet (as-received). 3×. The reinforcing sheet steel had been zinc plated as specified...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... tests of the safety valves. The header was outside the radiation zone of the boiler. Fig. 1 Arrangement of nozzle connecting safety valve line to superheater header, showing cracking. Figure 2 shows the typical appearance of the surface cracks in the shell wall and entry to the safety...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0089696
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... other side of the crosshead. Again, the beach marks appear to radiate from the weld-repair region. The cracks initiated at multiple sites and finally formed a single front. The twisted region at the left end of the specimen appears to be where the mating surfaces were separated to retrieve the samples...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... the damage and fracture as determined by metallographic investigation. Figure 1 shows the position where failure took place in a catalytic reformer furnace within the radiation zone. Failure occurred at the junction between the collector tube or manifold, which receives the products...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... elliptical or semielliptical rings, radiating outward from one or more origins. Beach marks (also known as clamshell marks, tide marks, or arrest marks) are typically found on service fractures where the part is loaded randomly, intermittently, or with periodic variations in mean stress or alternating stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... typical stress-corrosion cracks that radiated from the fracture surface along the grain boundaries ( Fig. 1b ). A macroetched cross section displayed a region of coarse-grain material (ASTM 2) surrounded by a structure of finer and more uniform grain size that extended to the surface. The coarse grain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... particular sample had a radiation count between 150 and 200 counts/min above background. Sample B from steam generator No. 1 Sample C from steam generator No. 1, which was taken vertically (120 to 150° from the inlet headers) The cracking on the steam generator specimens was predominantly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in case of tube leaks. The exit pigtails are in a bottom trough shielded from heat radiation, and are inaccessible while the reformer is in service. The tubes are supported at the top by concrete counterweights The components had seen about 50,000 h (5.7 years) of service at about 850 °C (1562 °F...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Additionally, the coils would be full of air at the time they were sealed so that there would be an excess of available oxygen compared with the relatively small amount of antifreeze left in the tube. This oxygen enrichment would itself promote corrosion. (The modern car radiator designed with a catching and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... activity to the basins as the core corrodes. Build-up of this activity in the basin water, if left uncontrolled, can ultimately lead to high radiation levels and exposure to personal working around the basins. An excellent description of classical corrosion of clad uranium is provided by the work done in...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... 20 kV. They then used a SEM-energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) method to determine the chemical compositions of specimens. To identify phases, they conducted x-ray diffraction experiments by using a diffractometer with Cu K α radiation at 30 kV and 40 mA. Figure 2(a) to (d) are...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...) connector failed. Visual examination of the fracture surfaces ( Fig. 2b and c ) showed chevron marks radiating from a common origin. Fracture initiated at a weld made during manufacture to install a handling padeye and propagated through the cross section in a brittle manner. No evidence of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... CPSES. They are cost effective to install in the field and the fact that they can be assembled quickly is important where minimizing the radiation dose is a consideration in the repair process. Enhanced field fabrication methods can be expected to result in even better reliability. Experiments...