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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract An open electrical circuit was found between plated through-holes in a six-layer printed circuit board after thermal cycling. The copper plating was very thin in the failure area but did make an electrical contact during initial testing. During thermal cycling, differential z-expansion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Electroless nickel plating separation from copper alloy CDA175 retaining clips used on printed circuit boards was caused by a copper oxide layer that reduced adhesion of the nickel plating on the clips. Stresses that developed during module insertion caused flaking to occur at the...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... crusher wear, electronic circuit board drill wear, grinding plate wear failure analysis, impact wear of disk cutters, and identification of abrasive wear modes in martensitic steels. abrasive wear failures abrasive wear mechanisms adhesive wear erosive-type wear wear failure analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the EDS system. The technique is very useful to illustrate abrupt or gradual composition variations at areas of interest on a sample surface or prepared specimen. Figure 13 shows a line scan on a metallographically prepared section of a printed circuit board with multiple failed solder connections...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... microelectronic components complex is that there are considerable thermal transient and cyclic effects that must be analyzed, and many of the critical materials have nonlinear properties. There are micro-heat-generation sources inside chip packages and global printed circuit board cooling considerations that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... chip packages and global printed circuit board cooling considerations that interact. These temperature conditions cause macrothermal distortions of the entire printed circuit boards (PCBs) as well as microdistortions at the solder joints that connect the chips to the PCBs. The cyclic thermal expansions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... emissivity. Rapid examination of large areas. Can be adapted to production inspections Circuit board solder joints, solar cells, heat-transfer equipment, metals, composites, concrete Sonic IR/vibro-thermography, inductive IR Acoustic or inductive energy is applied to a part, and cracks heat up more...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., wires, tubes, printed circuit boards, computer chips, and other whole or partial pieces of devices. While surface analysis tools are used to analyze solid surfaces, dried residues from liquids and even low-vapor-pressure oils and greases can also be looked at. A minute drop or thin layer of the liquid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the proper geometric size to be accepted into the instrument, can be analyzed by one or more of these surface analysis tools. This includes, but is not limited to, wafers, sheets, films, coatings, foils, chunks, powders, wires, tubes, printed circuit boards, computer chips, and other whole or partial...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
.... Reports from other laboratories are on file in the two courts where the litigation was pursued. The initial litigation against the railroad was filed in Bullitt Circuit Court, Kentucky, where it has the file number 79-CI-013 and is styled “Publishers Printing Co., et al., vs. Louisville and Nashville...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... widely used for sectioning sintered carbides, ceramic materials, thermally sprayed coatings, printed circuit boards, electronic components, bone, teeth, and so on. The primary purpose of mounting metallographic specimens is for convenience in handling specimens of difficult shapes or sizes during the...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... greater, but the depth of damage is much less. Precision saws are widely used for sectioning sintered carbides, ceramic materials, thermally sprayed coatings, printed circuit boards, electronic components, bone, teeth, and so on. The primary purpose of mounting metallographic specimens is for...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... nondestructive inspection of components. The method has gained in popularity in the biomedical industry and to inspect polymeric materials, printed circuit boards, batteries, and composites and nanomaterials (generally opaque materials). Due to limitations in the thickness that can be examined, the use of CT in...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... generated by companies tracking around the full loop or by short-circuiting it and modifying existing products without going through the full design process. Also represented on the map is the notion of levels of resolution , shown more specifically in Fig. 2 . In this simplified diagram, the design and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... turbine blades. This continual variation approach was applied to the striping problem. Rather than operating the induction furnace at one frequency, the furnace control circuit was designed to continuously vary the frequency. This modification in operating conditions completely eliminated the striping...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... large printing presses. The stainless steel screen held activated charcoal to recover the toluene (solvent for printing ink). The screen failed prematurely within one year following installation. The screen was used in an unannealed and unpassivated condition. The stainless steel sheet was perforated by...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... section in the inset. Note secondary, circumferential fracture at left end of the longitudinal main rupture. There are three causes of these rapid failures. The first is tube blockage. In a superheater or a reheater, condensate collects at low points in the steam circuit. A rapid start-up will lead...