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Potassium compounds

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... species on the tubes in Stage 3. The complete failure of the tube occurred due to diffusion of these elements into the base metal and precipitation of potassium and chlorine compounds along the grain boundaries, with subsequent dislodging of grains. The nonmetallic inclusions acted as nucleating sites for...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091703
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... diffraction (XRD) techniques. The internal deposits consisted of silicon oxide (SiO 2 ), potassium aluminum silicate (KAlSiO 4 ), calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ), and ammonium copper sulfite hydrate [(NH 4 ) 7 Cu(SO 2 ) 4 · 5H 2 O]. In addition to the elements contained in these compounds, EDS detected minor to...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0049796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... indicative of decomposition and dissolution were revealed to have occurred in regions of the pyrotechnic that had been in contact with the bridgewire and pin surfaces by examination of the titanium-potassium perchlorate (Ti-K-Cl-O4) pyrotechnic. Substantial amounts of water were revealed to be associated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... equiaxed alpha grains with annealing twins. Etched in potassium dichromate. (a) 91×. (b) 364× The transverse through-wall crack contained branching secondary cracks. The mode of cracking was transgranular. Branched transgranular crack paths are characteristic of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). The...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... experienced the same service conditions developed no corrosion. Corrosion was linked to forming defects that provided sites for localized corrosion, and to lack of steam drying after cleaning, which increased susceptibility to general corrosion. Corrosion products Hydroxides Potassium compounds Steam...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., indicative of organic compounds. Coolant 1 was found to contain small amounts of sulfur and phosphorus along with carbon and oxygen. Coolant 2 contained relatively small levels of aluminum, sodium, sulfur, phosphorus, and chlorine, along with high carbon and oxygen. The detergent was primarily potassium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... oxide/magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ). In addition to the iron found in magnetite, EDS detected minor to trace amounts of sodium, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, and potassium. Magnetite is the normal protective oxide layer that forms on boiler tube surfaces. The remaining elements are not commonly found in...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... oil are typically used, and all of these fuels can contain sulfur, sodium, potassium, vanadium, lead, and molybdenum as contaminants. The airborne pollutants entering with the inlet air depend on the turbine location, but include sodium, sulfur, chlorine, and calcium. These impurities in the fuel and...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...). Corrosive coal typically contains a significant amount of sulfur and sodium and/or potassium compounds. Visually, ferritic steel exhibits shallow grooves (referred to as alligatoring or elephant hide). A sulfur print photographic paper dipped in a 2% sulfuric acid solution, the excess solution wiped off...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of chlorine and potassium, a moderate amount of iron, and minor to trace amounts of sulfur, silicon, sodium, and aluminum ( Fig. 5 ). The presence of chlorine (chlorides) in the pit deposits indicates that the pitting was promoted by underdeposit chloride attack. Fig. 5 EDS results from a pit...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... nitrate and potassium chloride were found to be present in the residue. It is well documented that ammonium nitrate is an aggressive agent responsible for SCC in steel ( 5 , 6 , 7 ). The presence of chloride would explain the occurrence of pitting on the metal surface. This work was supported under...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... sodium pyrosulfates (Na 2 S 2 O 7 , melting point: 400 °C, or 750 °F) and potassium pyrosulfates (K 2 S 2 O 7 , melting point: <300 °C, or 570 °F) react with carbon steels by dissolving the protective oxide film and then reacting with iron to cause accelerated wastage. Coal-ash corrosion results when...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the elevated temperature is confined to a small area of the failure. All etched with nital. 500× Energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) analysis of the debris showed the major constituent to be iron with traces of phosphorus, manganese, sodium, calcium, copper, zinc, potassium, silicon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001696
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... disclosed the presence of corrosion products and debris, consisting of titanium-bearing paint chips, sulfur, and potassium, on the exterior surface of the tube. EDX/S disclosed no evidence of a protective coating on the mottled, pitted regions on the exterior of the tubing. Inductively coupled argon plasma...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... used in grinding and coarse polishing the failed pins. Final polishing was performed on a semi-automatic unit employing Kroll's etch and a rare earth polishing compound. Application of a duplex etching treatment consisting of Kroll's solution followed by a hydrogen peroxide-potassium hydroxide mixture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... surface, and the surface of the exposed dendrites inside the pores. Typical spectra from these three areas are shown in Fig. 8 , 9 , 10 . A spectrum of the fracture surface, shown in Fig. 8 , contains the expected metal species iron and chromium. The presence of elements such as chlorine, potassium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001713
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... accident, a blender was being used to mix 3968 kg (1800 lb) of aluminum powder, 11905 kg (5400 lb) of sodium hydrosulfite, 1984 kg (900 lb) of potassium carbonate, and 8 liters of benzaldehyde. The mixture is used as a gold precipitating agent. During the blending operation, a series of difficulties were...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of an in-process incident reveals that the material in house has been “mixed” with an unspecified material, spot-check test kits may be useful. Most of these tests have limited ability to distinguish certain grades from other somewhat closely related grades. For example, a drop of potassium...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in air. The SiC ceramics, produced by reaction sintering and containing free silicon, are more susceptible to oxidation and chemical corrosion than is single-phase SiC obtained by hot pressing. The SiC is very susceptible to attack by alkali-containing phases, such as sodium or potassium sulfate. On...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Fe 2 + + 4 OH − → 2 Fe ( OH ) 2 Ferrous ( Fe 2 + ) hydroxide precipitates from solution. However, this compound is unstable in oxygenated solutions and is oxidized to the ferric ( Fe 3 + ) salt: (Eq 17) 2 Fe ( OH ) 2 + H 2 O + 1...