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Potassium compounds

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of corrosive species on the tubes in Stage 3. The complete failure of the tube occurred due to diffusion of these elements into the base metal and precipitation of potassium and chlorine compounds along the grain boundaries, with subsequent dislodging of grains. The nonmetallic inclusions acted as nucleating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... that experienced the same service conditions developed no corrosion. Corrosion was linked to forming defects that provided sites for localized corrosion, and to lack of steam drying after cleaning, which increased susceptibility to general corrosion. Corrosion products Hydroxides Potassium compounds Steam...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... potassium, phosphorus, carbon, and oxygen, along with small amounts of sodium, magnesium, sulfur, and chlorine. The residue that was left after drying the rinse water was iron, silicon, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, copper, sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, carbon, and oxygen. The EDS results...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... with annealing twins. This microstructure is normal for an admiralty brass in the annealed condition. Fig. 2 Representative photomicrographs of the microstructure of the cooler tube. The structure consists of equiaxed alpha grains with annealing twins. Etched in potassium dichromate. (a) 91×. (b) 364...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091703
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... spectroscopy (EDS). Crystalline compounds in the deposit were identified using powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The internal deposits consisted of silicon oxide (SiO 2 ), potassium aluminum silicate (KAlSiO 4 ), calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ), and ammonium copper sulfite hydrate [(NH 4 ) 7 Cu(SO 2 ) 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... turbines, the air and fuel frequently contain contaminants that can cause serious hot corrosion problems. A wide range of fuels from clean gas to crude oil are typically used, and all of these fuels can contain sulfur, sodium, potassium, vanadium, lead, and molybdenum as contaminants. The airborne...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and the uncovered half (2 and 10 o'clock positions to the gas flow). Corrosive coal typically contains a significant amount of sulfur and sodium and/or potassium compounds. Visually, ferritic steel exhibits shallow grooves (referred to as alligatoring or elephant hide). A sulfur print photographic paper dipped...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0049796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... changes indicative of decomposition and dissolution were revealed to have occurred in regions of the pyrotechnic that had been in contact with the bridgewire and pin surfaces by examination of the titanium-potassium perchlorate (Ti-K-Cl-O4) pyrotechnic. Substantial amounts of water were revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., silicon, sulfur, chlorine, and potassium. Magnetite is the normal protective oxide layer that forms on boiler tube surfaces. The remaining elements are not commonly found in superheater tubes with the possible exception of silicon. The presence of these deposits indicate carryover from the steam drum has...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is confined to a small area of the failure. All etched with nital. 500× Energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) analysis of the debris showed the major constituent to be iron with traces of phosphorus, manganese, sodium, calcium, copper, zinc, potassium, silicon, chromium, and molybdenum. Thus...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... The transverse section removed from the window sample was dry ground to expose pit deposits and was analyzed using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscope (EDS) to determine the elements present. The pit deposits were found to contain major amounts of chlorine and potassium, a moderate amount of iron, and minor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... The residue which consists of combustion products from the solid propellant cartridges and corrosion products from the chamber are quite complex. Due to the complex nature of the residue, not all of the compounds present have been identified. From the XRD study ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride were...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... thiocyanate/acetone Blue color Identify cobalt-base alloys Copper Dithizone Purple color Sort copper-bearing stainless steels Iron Potassium ferricyanide Blue precipitate Sort low-iron high-temperature alloys Lead Sulfuric acid White precipitate Sort leaded bronze Molybdenum Potassium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., including metallographic mounting compounds. Micrograph shows an area approximately 6 mm (0.250 in.) wide. Courtesy of M. Chaudhari, Columbus Metallurgical Services Fig. 8 Sulfidation and chloridation attack on IN-601 nickel-base alloy of charcoal-regeneration kiln at higher magnification (~44...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001696
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... Similar examination disclosed the presence of corrosion products and debris, consisting of titanium-bearing paint chips, sulfur, and potassium, on the exterior surface of the tube. EDX/S disclosed no evidence of a protective coating on the mottled, pitted regions on the exterior of the tubing. Inductively...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001713
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... In this accident, a blender was being used to mix 3968 kg (1800 lb) of aluminum powder, 11905 kg (5400 lb) of sodium hydrosulfite, 1984 kg (900 lb) of potassium carbonate, and 8 liters of benzaldehyde. The mixture is used as a gold precipitating agent. During the blending operation, a series of difficulties...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... treatment consisting of Kroll's solution followed by a hydrogen peroxide-potassium hydroxide mixture, combined with interference microscopy, was needed to delineate the shear bands. The threads were heavily cold worked and in one pin, cracks were detected in the roots ( Figure 5 ). The cold worked...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... 8 , contains the expected metal species iron and chromium. The presence of elements such as chlorine, potassium, sulfur, and zinc are not associated with the alloy composition and were probably introduced by an outside source, such as water, chemicals used to treat the water, or cleaning agents...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., gaseous carbon compounds, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and other gases from the environment into the interior of metal parts is also a major source of stress in service. Corrosion Product Wedging The formation of corrosion products by local attack in confined spaces produces high stress levels...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... corrosion than is single-phase SiC obtained by hot pressing. The SiC is very susceptible to attack by alkali-containing phases, such as sodium or potassium sulfate. On oxidation, SiC forms a layer of SiO 2 , but the possibility of forming SiO (G) increases with temperature and when the partial pressure...