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Plastic bending

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and lower strains in compression compared to tension. Therefore, for a given input global bending strain, plastic deformation will occur at lower strains in compression than in tension. At high compressive strains, an outer fiber of severely plastically deformed material will exist at the intrados...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... bending. The core zone showed a hardness of 112, equivalent to a tensile strength of 24 t.p.s.i. Fig. 3 Sulphur print indicative of rimming steel. The general appearance of the fracture, and the fact that failure took place in a region where embrittlement had developed following plastic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... during extrusion of the T-sections; however, this condition was not a primary cause of failure. Extension ladders Extrusions 6061-T6 UNS A96061 Metalworking-related failures Ductile fracture Plastic bending A two-section aluminum extension ladder, owned by the fire department of a large...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... sequence of failure involved overheating of the Cr-Mo outlet tubes, heavy oxidation, oxide cracking on thermal cycling, thermal fatigue cracking plus oxidation, creep-controlled crack growth, and rapid plastic deformation and rupture. This failure was indicative of excess temperature of the steam coming...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Elongation Hardness Heat treatment Leaf springs, Mechanical properties Mechanical properties Plastic deformation Tensile strength Yield strength Inconel 718 UNS N07718 Heat treating-related failures Plastic bending Background The detent spring missile launcher failed in service during...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... unusual mechanisms of distortion. These include elastic distortion, ratcheting, and inelastic cyclic buckling. References References 1. Jones J.W. , Limit Analysis , Mach. Des. , Vol 45 ( No. 23 ), 20 Sept 1973 , p 146 – 151 2. Goldner D. , Plastic Bending in Tubular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... It discusses the general process of material failure analysis and special types of distortion and deformation failure. References References 1. Jones J.W. , Limit Analysis , Mach. Des. , Vol 45 ( No. 23 ), Sept 20 , 1973 , p 146 – 151 2. Goldner D. , Plastic Bending...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Morin, S.L. Meiley, and Z.B. Flanders, Packer Engineering Associates, Inc. Macroscale fractographic features Table 2 Macroscale fractographic features Mark/indication Implication Visible distortion Plastic deformation exceeded yield strength and may indicate instability (necking...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that it is not visually apparent. In some instances, small amounts of plastic deformation may be visible at the macroscale, such as the twisting of extrusion marks around the axis of the component (torsion loading). Two halves of a bending fracture can often be brought into close proximity to determine if a small...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... elastic fracture mechanics analysis, with some mention of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis. The article describes the probabilistic aspects of fatigue and fracture. Information on crack-growth simulation of the material is also provided. crack-growth simulation elastic-plastic fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of fracture mechanics. The fracture mechanics approach is an important part of stress analysis at the tips of sharp cracks or discontinuities. The article reviews fracture mechanics concepts, including linear elastic fracture mechanics, elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, and subcritical fracture mechanics...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and plastic strain. If any one of these three is not present, fatigue cracks will not initiate and propagate. The cyclic stress and strain starts the crack; the tensile stress produces crack growth (propagation). Although compressive stress will not cause fatigue cracks to propagate, compression loads may do...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-concentration effect permits local permanent plastic deformation at nominal stresses below yield. Initiation frequently occurs near free surfaces, because nominal stresses are often higher there (e.g., bending and torsion). Geometric variations at surfaces can locally elevate stresses and strains, and processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... therefore be based on loads, nominal stresses, structural stresses, or local stresses. For elastic-plastic behavior, local strains should be the basis of the assessment. The finite-life regime in a double-log plot (log S a -log N ) can be approximated by a straight line. Using any reference point...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... concepts. bending brittle fracture compression failure deformation ductile crack nucleation ductile fracture ductility fractography manufacturing imperfections metals microvoid coalescence notched specimen plastic flow root cause failure analysis single-crystal cleavage models specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... at the microscale, there is evidence of plastic deformation and failure by microvoid coalescence (MVC) ductile tearing. However, exceptions to this fracture progression mode have been reported. One is formation of a specimen-scale shear band (sometimes associated with void sheet formation at the microscale). One...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... testing of full-size components. The most important characteristic of a fatigue failure, and one that greatly puzzled the early engineers, is that some component, e.g., a bolt or shaft, made from a ductile material such as mild steel, fractures without revealing any indications of prior plastic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by bands of progressive fatigue fracture (bright) on service fatigue failure of forged aluminum alloy. Image made by transmitting light through a plastic replica of the fracture surface. Source: Ref 16 Fig. 29 Low-magnification view of fracture origin area of polycarbonate impact test specimen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... is that the bending occurred due to movement by the patient. Over a period of time this developed into a fatigue type of fracture. Such localized plastic deformation (in the vicinity of the eighth screw hole) would assist in fatigue fracture initiation and propagation. The other possibility is that the surgeon bent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... equipment would not cold work the pipe outer bends enough to form martensitic areas. The austenite-ferrite microstructurally induced galvanic corrosion because of the unique joint design. The weld zones were completely encapsulated in plastic, molded to provide a gasket surface. The undesirable chlorine...