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Pitting corrosion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Severe pitting corrosion of a carbon steel tube was observed in the air preheater of a power plant, which runs on rice straw firing. Approximately 1450 tubes were removed from Stage 3 of the preheater (air inlet and flue gas outlet) due to corrosion and local bursting. Samples from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0060104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... the outer surfaces. The cracking was revealed by metallographic examination to have initiated from the outer surface, frequently at pits, and penetrated the tube wall in a transgranular, branching fashion. The crack features were characteristic of chloride stress-corrosion cracking. A change in tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... formation of protective oxide films was recommended. Condenser tubes Salt water Sulfurization Aluminum brass Pitting corrosion A tube sample from an aluminum brass seawater surface condenser was received for analysis. This condenser had failed due to pitting after less than 1 year of service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048691
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... environment Heat Exchanger Tubes 410 UNS S41000 Pitting corrosion Many tube bundles in a heat exchanger fabricated from AISI type 410 stainless steel experienced leakage during hydrostatic testing. The tubes had not yet been in service, and no metallurgical deficiencies that could have caused the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... that a molybdenum-bearing stainless steel such as 316L or 317L be used instead of 321. Heat exchanger tubes Leakage 321 UNS S32100 Pitting corrosion AISI type 321 stainless steel tubes - from both a heat exchanger, used to pre-heat make-up water, and from a blow-down unit in the same...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... segregation in the original plate served as preferential corrosion sites. Had the tanks been hydrostatically tested in a proper manner, the pitting may not have occurred. Corrosion environments Nitric acid Sewage Solvents Storage tanks 304L UNS S30403 Pitting corrosion Biological corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of pitting observed since 1993. This paper describes the corrosion of spent fuel and the metallographic examination of Mark 31A target slugs removed from the K-basin storage pool after 5 years of storage. It discusses the SRS Corrosion Surveillance Program and the improvements made to the storage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and microscopic analysis revealed several large and small well rounded corrosion pits present at the inner diametral surfaces. The cause of corrosion was attributed to corrosive waters that were not only corroding the copper, but were corroding steel pipes upstream from the tubing. Grinding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... pitting was caused by cavitation and erosion along the length of the venturi tube. Corrosion and pitting was seen on the exterior walls of the diffuser tubes. Stress-corrosion cracks were observed emanating from these corrosion pits. The corrosion likely occurred from the chloride ions present in the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... inadequate head. Corrosion pitting, crevice corrosion, and solidification cracks (casting defect) also contributed to the failure. Cavitation corrosion Hydrochloric acid Pump impellers Grade 702 UNS R60702 Crevice corrosion Casting-related failures Pitting corrosion Remnants of two zirconium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091208
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... Doubling the wall thickness of the floor plates was also recommended. Cathodic protection Liquid asphalt Storage tanks Steel storage tank Biological corrosion Pitting corrosion A failure of an aboveground storage tank occurred due to external corrosion of the tank floor. The liquid asphalt...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091703
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... ammonia (prohibitively expensive in cost and time) or using an alternate material (such as a 70Cu-30Ni alloy or a more expensive titanium alloy) that is resistant to ammonia corrosion as well as to chlorides and sulfur species. Air cooling Ammonia Hydroelectric generators Hydroelectric power...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... other hot component. In this particular case, control of dissolved solids in the boiler feedwater may have been inadequate. Steam collectors Superheaters Carbon steel Pitting corrosion Stress-corrosion cracking Figure 1 shows the arrangement of the outlet from a superheater in a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001710
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... Aluminum cladding Spent nuclear fuel Storage racks 6061 UNS A96061 Exfoliation corrosion Pitting corrosion Aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel, irradiated in the reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS), is stored in concrete lined, water-filled basins located at the individual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... plant. Examination of tubes and tube sheets revealed pitting damage on the OD surface. Some of the pits had penetrated fully, resulting in holes. Inside diameter surfaces were free of corrosion. Macro- and microexaminations indicated that the tubes had been properly manufactured. Pitting was attributed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... monitoring and maintenance to ensure that another low-pH excursion does not occur. Boiler tubes Chlorides, environment ASME SA210-C Pitting corrosion Severe pitting was found on the internal surface of waterwall tubes at a south-eastern cogeneration facility. The areas most affected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001386
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... fracture that was preceded by a small fatigue region. Pitting corrosion was evident at the fracture origin. The areas around the load cells had been subjected to regular washdowns using high-pressure hot water, and the pitting was attributed to crevice corrosion between the load cell and the holddown bolts...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Catastrophic pitting corrosion occurred in type 304L stainless steel pipe flange assemblies in an industrial food processor. During regular service the pumped medium was pureed vegetables. In situ maintenance procedures included cleaning of the assemblies with a sodium hypochlorite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... pitting corrosion. Extensive pitting was found on the insides of all sections examined, with deep and numerous pits in leaking areas. Circumstantial evidence indicated that antifreeze solution left in the tubes from the manufacturing operation was the most likely cause of the pitting. Condenser...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A helicopter tail rotor blade spar failed in fatigue, allowing the blade to separate during flight. The 2014-T652 aluminum alloy blade had a hollow spar shank filled with lead wool ballast and a thermoset polymeric seal. A corrosion pit was present at the origin of the fatigue zone and...