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Pipeline steel

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 4 Microstructures of pipeline steel at various locations relative to the fracture origin site: 10 in. from fracture origin, 400× (upper, left); 8in., 400× (upper, center); 1.5 in., 400× (upper right); at fracture origin, 1000× (lower, left); and at fracture origin, 3600× (lower, right). More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 8 Stepwise cracking of a low-strength pipeline steel exposed to hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S). 6× More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 40 Hydrogen-induced cracking in pipeline steel More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... Abstract A stainless steel pipe transferring hot white liquor solution of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfite, developed leaks adjacent to the welds within four years of service. The stainless steel pipe was AISI type 304 and welded with E308 weld electrodes. The service temperature was 190 deg...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract A natural gas pipeline explosion and subsequent fire significantly altered the pipeline steel microstructure, obscuring in part the primary cause of failure, namely, coating breakdown at a local hard spot in the steel. Chemical analysis was made on pieces cut from the portion...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Stainless steel pipeline for carrying hot nitrogen gas from heater to turbine that failed in the bellows section because of grain-boundary embrittlement. Dimensions given in inches More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article discusses the failure analysis of several steel transmission pipeline failures, describes the causes and characteristics of specific pipeline failure modes, and introduces pipeline failure prevention and integrity management practices and methodologies. In addition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... black tar-like coating was cracked. Gas pipelines Welded joints Pipeline steel Ductile fracture Fatigue fracture Pitting corrosion The National Transportation Safety Board simultaneously investigates major accidents in different modes of transportation at any time. The services...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0065825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... propagation were needed be controlled. It was concluded that improved steel processing procedures, chiefly hot-working temperature and deformation control, were also required to optimize microstructure and properties. Chemical composition Ductile brittle transition Gas pipelines Steel making API 5L...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract The defects observed along weldings of stainless steel pipelines employed in marine environments were evidenced by metallographic and electrochemical examination. A compilation of cases on the effect of defective weldings, in addition to improper choice of stainless steel for water...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (1000 psi) and are made of steel pipes welded or mechanically coupled together. Since the 1940s, all of the lines have been assembled by welding. The third type of pipeline is a gas-distribution line that mainly transports natural gas within cities at pressures that vary from several tens of pounds per...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract One of five underground drain lines intended to carry a highly acidic effluent from a chemical-processing plant to distant holding tanks failed in just a few months. Each line was made of 304L stainless steel pipe 73 mm (2 in.) in diam with a 5 mm (0.203 in.) wall thickness. Lengths...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The pipeline was constructed from spiral-welded API 5L-X65 HSLA steel and was intended for seawater injection. Analysis included nondestructive testing, metallography, and scanning electron microscopy. Based on the results, the failure was attributed to transit fatigue, caused during highway transportation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...) was performed on samples removed from the base and seam weld of the pipe section. A metallurgical analysis was performed on a section of a pipeline that leaked while transporting hydrocarbons. The portion of the pipeline containing the failure was composed of API 5L X46 line pipe steel, 21.91-cm diameter...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... was found to terminate at the welds that joined the bend to the pipeline. A high concentration of both small and large inclusions was exhibited by the metallographic examination of the steel near the fracture. Branched cracks similar to those produced by stress corrosion of steel were observed in a section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract A welded natural gas line of 400 mm OD and 9 mm wall thickness made of unalloyed steel with 0.22C had to be removed from service after four months because of a pipe burst. Metallographic examination showed the pipe section located next to the gas entrance was permeated by cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract The onset of leakage adjacent to two butt welds in a 2 in. bore pipe was traced to the development of fine cracks. The pipe carried 40% sodium hydroxide solution. The actual temperature was not known, but the pipeline was steam traced at a pressure of 30 psi, equivalent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... stabilized grades of stainless steels to avoid sensitization and thus prevent SCC. In spite of this precautionary measure, failures do occur because of various reasons. The present failure investigation is concerned with SCC of a ring type joint (RTJ) of reactor pipeline of a hydrocracker unit. The RTJ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Several hundred leaks were reported in the type 304 stainless steel pipelines, vessels, and tanks of a chemical plant at a tropical location within a few weeks after startup. Investigation of the failure involved a site visit, metallographic examination and analysis of the material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Plant (RSP) of Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) is one of the major producers of API grade linepipes in the country. During the last few years, RSP has successfully provided the components needed for a number of pipeline projects, supplying API grades of ERW and spirally welded pipes up to API 5L...