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Pipe bends

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract An investigation was conducted to determine why 16 out of 139 pipe bends cracked during hot induction bending. The pipe conformed to API 5L X65 PSL2 line pipe standards and measured 1016 mm (40 in.) in diam with a wall thickness of 18.5 mm. A metallurgical cross section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract Stainless steel pipe (273-mm OD x 8-mm wall thickness) used in the fabrication of large manifolds developed crack-like decohesions during a routine inductive bending procedure. The imperfections, which were found near the outside diameter, were around 3 mm in length oriented...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the core zone were noted. It was also possible that the pipe was resting on a cold plate during bending or that it came in touch with a cold tool. This apparently caused the strains at the transition to the cross-sectional part that had been cooled more slowly. The location of the crack at just this point...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... included reducing the tube temperature, replacing the Schedule 40 100 deg bends with Schedule 80 pipe, and solution annealing the pipe after bending. Boiler tubes Brittle fracture Contaminants Creep (materials) Ductility Intergranular fracture Lead (metal), Impurities Mechanical properties...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... stock pipe flange assemblies exhibited catastrophic pitting corrosion at the outer and inner walls of the pipe. The corrosion damage was most apparent at the outer and inner bends. All other surfaces exhibited smooth topographies, with no evidence of oxide discoloration at the weld zones...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048846
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... that cracking initiated on the pipe exterior, then propagated inward and in the circumferential direction in response to a bending moment load. There was no indication of a pre-existing flaw or defect at the initiation sites other than the microscopic hardness heterogeneity noted above The primary cause...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract A large diameter steel pipe reinforced by stiffening rings with saddle supports was subjected to thermal cycling as the system was started up, operated, and shut down. The pipe functioned as an emission control exhaust duct from a furnace and was designed originally using...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0090908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...Abstract Abstract An irrigation pipe made of medium-density PE failed during service. This pipe was subjected to severe cyclic-bending strain of the order of 6% while under tensile stress of approximately 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) and a hoop stress of approximately 6.2 MPa (900 psi), far more...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract During a hydraulic test on one of the boilers in a range, leakage occurred from the lower surface of a horizontal S bend in the main steam pipe between the drum connector box and the junction valve. The pipe in question was 15 in. bore and had been in service for about 50...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... ductility. Bend tests Cooling systems Surface defects Tubes Water cooling 6061-T6 UNS A96061 Fatigue fracture Metalworking-related failures Several of the aluminum alloy 6061-T6 drawn seamless tubes connecting an array of headers to a system of water-cooling pipes failed from causes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract After some 87,000 h of operation, failure took place in the bend of a steam pipe connecting a coil of the third superheater of a steam generator to the outlet steam collector. The unit operated at 538 deg C and 135 kPa, producing 400 t/h of steam. The 2.25Cr-1Mo steel pipe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... treatment for ferritizing malleable iron. This resulted in lower resistance to erosion and corrosion than pearlitic malleable iron. Recommendations included replacing the elbows with heat-treated fittings with a pearlitic malleable microstructure. Impingement erosion Pearlite Pipe bends ASTM A47...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of the pipes and which appeared at the external as well as the internal surfaces of the bend. The pipe diameter was flattened in the bends. Chemical analysis showed the following values in wt.-%: Accordingly carbon content was too high. It will be shown later that this is a consequence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the material after its design stress had been exceeded. It was recommended that steel with a higher chromium content be used to mitigate the erosion corrosion potential in the lines and that more rigorous nondestructive (ultrasonic) examinations be performed. Nuclear reactor components Pipe bends...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of overaging from the welding heat. Additional support for the oil line was installed to reduce vibration and minimize fatigue of the elbow. Gas tungsten arc welding Overaging Penetration Pipe bends Repair welding 6061-T6 UNS A96061 Fatigue fracture Joining-related failures Several elbow...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0006417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... stainless steel was also recommended. Cadmium plating Corrosion prevention Corrosion products Energy dispersive x ray analysis Inhibitors Iron oxides Materials substitution Pipe bends Scanning electron microscopy 4340 UNS G43400 (Other, general, or unspecified) corrosion A cadmium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... that hot bending be used for fabrication of the curved parts. A change of alloy to a low-alloy chromium-molybdenum allay to protect against heat was also suggested. Chemical processing equipment Chemical reactors Creep (materials) Pipe bends Tubing Incoloy 800H UNS N08810 Intergranular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... with the longitudinal axis of the pipe have likely been influenced by stress other than the hoop stress. These types of fractures (nonaxial) may be driven by residual stresses, bending stresses, mechanical damage, soil movement, thermal expansion, or a combination of factors. With larger ruptures, flaps may be created...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... toe of the socket weld joint. Cyclic bending in response to inadequately supported large cantilever loads or piping system vibrations was the driving force. The cracks initiated at the toe of the axial weld leg. There were no examples of cracks initiating at the radial toe. One failure (about 8...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... to heat from outside to 100°C completely desalinated, virtually oxygen-saturated water by steam of 0.5 atm. and 150°C. The pipes showed on the outside a reddish-brown coating with a few flat pitting holes and incipient cracks ( Fig. 1 ). The cracks were markedly widened in 180° bends ( Fig. 2...