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Pinholes

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract Pinhole defects were found in a main combustion chamber made from NARloy-Z after an unexpectedly short time in service. Analysis indicated that the throat section of the liner had been exposed to very severe environmental conditions of high temperature and high oxygen content...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...). The corrosion occurred at welds and consisted of large subsurface void formations with pinhole penetrations of the surfaces. Corrosive attack initiated in the heat affected zones of the welds, usually immediately adjacent to fusion lines. Stepwise grinding, polishing, and etching through the affected areas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... developed from a circumferential crack on the underside of the uppermost turn. Shorter cracks were found at a similar location on the bottom turn, and further leakage occurred at pinhole perforations adjacent to the crack in the top turn and near to a butt-weld in the coil. Microscopic examination revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... components Pinhole Thermocouples 316L UNS S31603 (Other, general, or unspecified) corrosion Background Visual Examination of General Physical Features Testing Procedure and Results Discussion Conclusion and Recommendations Reference Reference 1. Kiessling R. and Lange...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0051866
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... that a pinhole leak in the tubing was noticed when the tubing was being spooled over the reel and then the tubing “snapped.” Fig. 1 Fracture surface of coiled steel tubing showing a flat fracture (arrow) indicative of fatigue The flat portion of the fracture surface is typical for fatigue cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the cleaned surface revealed several minute pinholes ( Fig. 1 ). When the pinholes were cross-sectioned, scalloped pitting and subsurface cavities were apparent ( Fig. 2 ). Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the brown residue adjacent to the pitting revealed sulfur and chloride in addition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... is an unpredictable length. There is generally absence of any significant swelling, but occasional bubbles of hydrogen may be evolved, and the pinhole in the aluminum may be discolored by small particles of UO 2 . The propagation stage is characterized by the growth of a blister at the pinhole. Once swelling starts...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... of material will perform significantly better when there is more flow of water. Retesting of the water indicated similar high levels of aerobic bacteria, so these must be considered a part of the design basis. Due to the extensive amount of piping, the pinhole size of the leaks, and environmental...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... still implies a tensile strength in excess of 220Ksi ( 2 ). A necessary requirement for hydrogen absorption at the surface of a pipeline is a condition of coating rupture. The rupture may take the form of larger holidays (or holes) in the coating or very fine pinhole porosity. Local regions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... B 100 Cavities with generally rounded, smooth walls perceptible to the naked eye (blowholes, pinholes) B 110 Class B 100 cavities internal to the casting, not extending to the surface, discernible only by special methods, machining, or fracture of the casting B 111 (a) Internal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and producing hydrogen Combination of high pressure, high inside surface metal temperature, and high local concentrations of mono- or disodium phosphate Leak type Pinhole leaks or thick-lipped rupture Thick-lipped window-shaped rupture Pinhole leaks or thick-lipped rupture Locations High heat flux...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... (Na 2 HPO 4 ) Leak type Pinhole leaks or thick-lipped rupture Thick-lipped window-shaped rupture Pinhole leaks or thick-lipped rupture Locations High heat-flux regions, horizontal and inclined tubing, and locations with flow disruptions High heat-flux regions, horizontal and inclined tubing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... isolated inclusions of submicron size were observed. Fig. 3 Microstructure of the bellows material, showing flow lines and elongated grains Crack Origins/Paths The major challenge during this failure analysis was to locate the leakage paths, which were expected to be minute pinhole defects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001705
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., then flushed with water and a mild basic solution, [ 1 ]. During subsequent hydrostatic pressure testing the tubes failed, first by a blowout in one coil, which was then capped off, and next with multiple pinhole leaks. It was concluded that these failures were attributable to intergranular attack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... the bricked roof of the furnace, and pinhole penetration was detected at a few isolated points on two or three of these tubes in the pitted regions. Further examination and testing were restricted to the failed tube and the refractory cement. The composition of the failed tube was found by spectrographic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the naked eye (blowholes, pinholes) B 110: Class B 100 cavities internal to the casting, not extending to the surface, discernible only by special methods, machining, or fracture of the casting B 111 (a) Internal, rounded cavities, usually smooth-walled, of varied size, isolated or grouped...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... section #2 ( Fig. 13 ): Total erosion along the length of the rod. Fig. 12 (a) Rod section #1 (b) Rod section #2 Fig. 13 Rod section #2 The production tubing revealed severe corrosion attack with pinholes aligned along one side of the length of the tubing. After acid cleaning...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... 10 and 11 . These figures are from the burn-through failure shown in Fig. 6 . This is an extreme case, in which the pitting corrosion has locally penetrated the dome. Normally, the pits vary in size from pinholes to 6mm in diameter. Metallographic cross sections through the dome have revealed pits...