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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... components Pinhole Thermocouples 316L UNS S31603 (Other, general, or unspecified) corrosion Reference 1. Kiessling R. and Lange N. , Nonmetallic Inclusions in Steels, Part II , The Metals Society , London , 1978 , p 82 – 84 Selected Reference • Forms...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... occurred at welds and consisted of large subsurface void formations with pinhole penetrations of the surfaces. Corrosive attack initiated in the heat affected zones of the welds, usually immediately adjacent to fusion lines. Stepwise grinding, polishing, and etching through the affected areas revealed that...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... from a circumferential crack on the underside of the uppermost turn. Shorter cracks were found at a similar location on the bottom turn, and further leakage occurred at pinhole perforations adjacent to the crack in the top turn and near to a butt-weld in the coil. Microscopic examination revealed that...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Pinhole defects were found in a main combustion chamber made from NARloy-Z after an unexpectedly short time in service. Analysis indicated that the throat section of the liner had been exposed to very severe environmental conditions of high temperature and high oxygen content, which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0051866
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... ) that was about 1 2 in. (13 mm) in length with the rest of the fracture showing shear lips indicative of tensile overload. The fracture was not associated with the longitudinal weld seam. The field report indicated that a pinhole leak in the tubing was noticed when the tubing was being...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... extensive areas of the casting Corner scab A 226 (a) Projections with rough surfaces in an area formed by a core Broken or crushed core Cavities B 100: Cavities with generally rounded, smooth walls perceptible to the naked eye (blowholes, pinholes) B 110: Class B 100...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
..., so these must be considered a part of the design basis. Due to the extensive amount of piping, the pinhole size of the leaks, and environmental consequences of leaks, repair of the existing pitted pipe was impractical. Replacement of the pipe was recommended. Several alloys, nonmetallic materials...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... A red oxide that was present on the waterside was cleaned with soap and water. Stereoscopic examination of the cleaned surface revealed several minute pinholes ( Fig. 1 ). When the pinholes were cross-sectioned, scalloped pitting and subsurface cavities were apparent ( Fig. 2 ). Energy dispersive X...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001705
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., which was then capped off, and next with multiple pinhole leaks. It was concluded that these failures were attributable to intergranular attack by the nitric acid. The steel had been sensitized by prolonged exposure to temperatures in its sensitization range: 800–1600°F. It was determined that, based on...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... failure analysis was to locate the leakage paths, which were expected to be minute pinhole defects in light of the very small measured leak rates. Only then would it be possible to investigate the microstructural details around the leaks. Polishing of the specimen chosen for optical microscopy was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... holidays (or holes) in the coating or very fine pinhole porosity. Local regions of disbanding may also occur. Cracks or pinholes in the coating may allow ground water to reach the surface of the steel in a region where the cathodic protection system would not have enough “throwing power” to supply complete...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... upstream source. This was found to be true in this example, where further investigation located a pinhole leak in the tube upstream from the rupture at the end of a web weld to an adjoining tube and a leak in that adjoining tube. Evaluation determined the upstream leak was the location of the primary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ) Leak type Pinhole leaks or thick-lipped rupture Thick-lipped window-shaped rupture Pinhole leaks or thick-lipped rupture Locations High heat-flux regions, horizontal and inclined tubing, and locations with flow disruptions High heat-flux regions, horizontal and inclined tubing, and locations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... the furnace. Ten of these tubes were found to be pitted to varying degrees in the regions that had been enclosed within the bricked roof of the furnace, and pinhole penetration was detected at a few isolated points on two or three of these tubes in the pitted regions. Further examination and testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... period observed in the corrosion of bare aluminum, and a propagation stage. The initiation stage usually is an unpredictable length. There is generally absence of any significant swelling, but occasional bubbles of hydrogen may be evolved, and the pinhole in the aluminum may be discolored by small...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... . This is an extreme case, in which the pitting corrosion has locally penetrated the dome. Normally, the pits vary in size from pinholes to 6mm in diameter. Metallographic cross sections through the dome have revealed pits up to 1mm in depth. The pits cover a majority of the dome interior, being more...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... section #2 ( Fig. 13 ): Total erosion along the length of the rod. Fig. 12 (a) Rod section #1 (b) Rod section #2 Fig. 13 Rod section #2 The production tubing revealed severe corrosion attack with pinholes aligned along one side of the length of the tubing. After acid cleaning, the...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... rejected during solidification, and this leads to pinhole formation and porosity in steel. Just a few parts per million (ppm) of hydrogen dissolved in steel can cause hairline cracks (flakes), HE, hydrogen blistering and loss of tensile ductility, particularly in large steel castings, ingots, blooms, and...