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Phase transformations

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... temperatures. The combined effect of pitting, incrustations, and phase transformations caused the pipe to rupture. boiler tube fracture corrosion pits salt incrustation carbon steel thermal fatigue striations dimples microstructural analysis plastic strain A192 (carbon steel) UNS K01201...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... incidents involving single-phase flow conditions have occurred in the 50 to 230 °C (120 to 445 °F) temperature range, with 140 to 260 °C (285 to 500 °F) being the normal range for two-phase flow conditions. It appears that the critical temperature for carbon steels occurs in the 130 to 150 °C (265 to 300 °F...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... compared to fine grain sizes, because the grain boundary area per unit volume decreases. This results in lesser number of potent sites available for nucleation of ferrite and pearlite. Thus, the transformation of austenite into softer phases (i.e. ferrite-pearlite) is slowed down with the increase in the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... metallographic sections of the wires revealed highly deformed ferrite and pearlite, the normal and expected microstructure for cold-drawn wire ( Fig. 4 ). However, the longitudinal sections through the fatigue cracks exhibited a white-etching microstructural phase at the origins ( Fig. 5 ). Fig. 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-appearing phase dotting the interface between the cermet metallization and the thick-film polymer conductive ink. Fourier transform infrared analysis determined that this dark-appearing phase was actually resin separation from the epoxy binder in the thick-film ink. The following features can be discerned...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... cooled slowly through the three phase α+γ + carbide region. Fig. 3 a. Cross section etched with FeCl 3 + HCl + ethanol. 500× Microstructure of steel at the thinner cross section. b. Cross section etched with FeCl 3 + HCl + ethanol 500× Microstructure of steel at the thicker cross section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... gas mixture during these phases of operation. Endothermic gases become unstable and explosive below 650 °C (1200 °F). It is apparent that during startup and shutdown operations a carburizing atmosphere was formed. Introduction of the nitrogen gas to purge the system lowered the gas temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... procedure to deal with stress by determining maximum values through stress transformation is described. The article provides the stress analysis equations of typical component geometries and discusses some of the implications of the stress analysis relative to failure in components. It focuses on linear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract This paper describes the superplastic characteristics of shipbuilding steel deformed at 800 °C and a strain rate less than 0.001/s. After the superplastic deformation, the steel presents mixed fractures: by decohesion of the hard (pearlite and carbides) and ductile (ferrite) phases and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... for how this swell could precipitate a BLEVE. The first scenario is that the top portion of the tank, which is above the liquid level, becomes heated to above approximately 750 °C and transforms to austenite. The subsequent two-phase swell then fills the tank and cools the steel rapidly enough to...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... °F), the thermodynamically stable phase is different and has a volume about 3 to 4% higher than the high-temperature phase. The transformation kinetics are slow, so that after quenching during the glass tempering process, any nickel sulfide inclusion is still in the high-temperature phase. Over...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... graphite. Stresses generated by phase transformations promote decohesion of metal particles and graphite, and gross metal wastage (dusting) occurs. Fig. 6 Reactivity of sever air representative alloys reacted in Co. Once this mechanism was initiated, reaction rates probably accelerated when...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... range, the stress-induced austenite to martensite phase transformation is suppressed. At 37 °C, the specimens are all just above the A f temperature, maximizing superelasticity. At −194 °C, the specimens were completely martensitic. As-drawn wire fracture surfaces were examined after torsional and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... different types. The phases shown in Fig. 4 appeared similar to the dissociated intermetallics observed in the transformed surface region obtained during simulated tests ( Ref 1 ). The other phase found in the banded region appeared more homogeneous ( Fig. 5 ). The overall zirconium and oxygen contents in...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... content increases the amount of martensite transformation on rapid cooling or quenching. The martensitic phase contains less Cr than ferrite and therefore corrodes more rapidly. Fig. 4 Alloy 430 time-temperature-transformation diagram 16 Partially transformed steels are also very susceptible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... new phases could nucleate within multicomponent superalloys to form many microstructural instabilities ( Ref 91 ). These instabilities can include transformation of a metastable phase to a more stable but incoherent phase, as in carbide transformation; stress-induced differential diffusion of solute...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... complete spheroidization. This change in microstructures in 1¼ chromium steel typically occurs only at elevated temperatures, but below the critical transformation temperature, which is near 720 °C. Complete phase transformation can occur above this temperature. There were no signs of phase transformation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... austenitic region. This is usually not the case after welding. In this case the unstable iron carbide may segregate as a transition phase in a zone immediately adjacent to the seam, since this zone is heated to the highest temperature and cooled at the fastest rate. This unstable phase may be transformed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... conclusive evidence of the phase constituents present. Figure 6 shows the XRD spectra obtained. In the unaffected areas the tin plating appeared to consist of metallic beta tin. However, in the affected, powdery areas the tin was present in the alpha form—tin pest. Fig. 6 XRD spectra from unaffected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... microstructure of SAE-192 carbon steel contains ferrite and pearlite phases. However, the microstructure of tube 2 in the fracture area (as well as at some distance from the rupture), consisted of ferrite with grain boundary cementite or spheroidal carbides (Fe 3 C) and no pearlite phases. Occurrence of such a...