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Phase decomposition

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... stuck in the housing due to growth and distortion after approximately 100 h. Gas temperatures were suspected to have been high due to overfueled conditions. Both the rotor and housing were to have been an annealed ferritic ductile iron similar to ASTM A395. Critical temperature Pearlite Phase...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... (or crown) of the tube which also coincided with the bottom of the welded fin. Since the tubes are horizontal and there is two-phase flow, the corrosion had occurred in the steam phase. An identical example of boiler tube corrosion with photographic documentation could not be found in the literature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001711
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... microcavities in triple points. Failure took place when this damage developed in the third creep phase, after the constant strain dε/dt phase ended ( 2 ). Surprisingly, it was found that, after nearly the same time in service, the magnetite oxide layer in the 20CrMoV12-1 steel was much thicker than...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... A sound, aggressive risk and hazard analysis during all design phases Development of suitable corrective action and safety programs based on the analysis A continuous and searching review of all phases of the program efforts Rigorous applications of risk and hazard analysis have made difficult...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in the outer ring, Fig. 3a . This phenomenon is consistent with the results of the chemical compositional analysis. Besides, the cage consisted of both acicular α phase (white) and β phase (black), Fig. 3c , showing the typical microstructure of casting brass alloy. Fig. 3 Metallographic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... The quench portion of the thermal cycle will occur after lower inlet liquid temperatures are achieved which return the coil to either single phase liquid, bubbly flow, slug flow or the annular flow regime causing liquid to be in contact with the tube wall. The tube metal temperature spike occurs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... gave an average value of 92HV, while the end of the tube section averaged 98HV. The recommended value for SAE-192 carbon steel is 137HV. The normal microstructure of SAE-192 carbon steel contains ferrite and pearlite phases. However, the microstructure of tube 2 in the fracture area (as well...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... during the early phases of the investigation, it is critical to determine what materials were selected by the designers and obtain a copy of the material specifications and certifications. For example, some of the commonly used material specifications in the United States for engineered metals...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the decomposition of ferrite and also increases the volume fraction of austenite. This σ phase reaction is favored by aging at higher temperatures (650–900 °C) and longer periods (30 min to 8 h), and the kinetics of the reaction to form σ phase are slower than for Cr 2 N precipitation [ 3 , 5 ]. Austenitic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... steel overaged—complete graphitization and phases present are ferrite and graphite only Fig. 2 Stages of graphitization of a medium carbon steel aged at constant temperature, showing the effect of temperature during aging The nucleation of graphite nodules demands mobility of carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... modes, including tension, shear, compression, torsion, and flexure. The results obtained as part of a DMA experiment provide the storage modulus, loss modulus, and the tangent of the phase-angle delta (tan delta). Dynamic mechanical analysis is not routinely used as a failure analysis technique...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... metallurgical instabilities, such as transgranular-intergranular fracture transition, recrystallization, aging or overaging (phase precipitation or decomposition of carbides, borides, or nitrides), intermetallic-phase precipitation, delayed transformation to equilibrium phases, order-disorder transition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to notches at surface or brittle phases internally • Progressive zone: usually transgranular with little apparent distortion • Overload zone: may be either ductile or brittle • Microstructural change typical of overheating • Multiple intergranular cracks • Voids formed on grain boundaries or wedge-shaped...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., as for silica or zirconia. Other transitions are the decomposition of mixed oxides (e.g., ZrSiO 4 → ZrO 2 + SiO 2 ), the devitrification of glassy phases, and the crystallization of high-temperature phases for amorphous or poorly crystallized ones (e.g., the graphitization of carbon). For such modifications...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the location of the failure to the locations of other system components—for example, the location of a tube rupture in relation to those of burners or soot blowers—is an important phase of on-site examination. It is usually helpful for the individual making the on-site examination to have an assortment...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with reaction scale• Grain faces may show porosity Metallographic inspection, 50–1000× (cross section) • Grain distortion and flow near fracture• Irregular, transgranular fracture • Little distortion evident• Intergranular or transgranular• May relate to notches at surface or brittle phases internally...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... is to consider bacterial problems at the start of the construction design phase. If a process condition is to be changed, its potential impact on bacteria growth should be considered. Once MIC has developed in a system, the difficulty in mitigating MIC increases. A simple material change by itself, usually...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... the expansion of the grain boundaries. Diameter of the crater-like pit is around 0.5 mm. Fig. 3 Microstructure of metal dusting crater Fig. 4 Magnification from photo in Figure 3 . Carbide phase is MC. Adjacent to the crater is structure of metal and carbon Figure 5 shows...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... precipitation or decomposition of carbides, borides, and nitrides), intermetallic-phase precipitation, delayed transformation to equilibrium phases, order-disorder transition, general oxidation, IG corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, slag-enhanced corrosion, and contamination by trace elements. Other...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in hydrostatic pressure, accelerate phase transformations ( Ref 7 ). This occurs whether the stresses are tensile or compressive and results in accelerated austenite decomposition and increased M s temperature. The strain of this process is often estimated as being equal to the volumetric expansion divided by 3...