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Perforation

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001480
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract One tube in a watertube boiler developed leakage from a perforation. The external surface was covered with a dark deposit indicative of local fusion. Perforation resulted from the development of a crack from the internal surface. Microscopic examination revealed extensive intergranular...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0091757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... to 69 kPa (5 to 10 psi), and 125 deg C (260 deg F). The kiln developed perforations within eight months of operation. Investigation (visual inspection, metallurgical analysis, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and 44X micrographs) supported the conclusion that the sulfur and chlorine in the charcoal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract The curved parts of exit pigtails made of wrought Incoloy 800H tubing used in steam reforming furnaces failed by performance after a period of service shorter than that predicted by the designers. Examination of a set of tubes consisting of both curved (perforated) and straight parts...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Perforation near alloy 160 patch showing that the original 6.35 mm (0.250 in.) wall thickness had been reduced to 1.27 mm (0.050 in.) or less in the general area of failure More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Carbon steel superheater tube. Pitting corrosion and perforation were caused by the presence of oxygenated water during idle periods. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Views of a through-wall perforation of a chromium-plated α brass (70Cu-30Zn) tube removed from a potable water system due to dezincification. (a) Macroview of tube. (b) Inside diameter surface of the tube shown in (a), depicting localized green deposits at the areas of dezincification More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 9 Tube perforation, 26× original magnification, potassium dichromate etch More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 19 Pitting and perforation on the outside of a carbon steel pipe More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 Top half of inlet foot illustrating extent and distribution of perforations. More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 1 ( a ) Severe damage on suction side caused ( b ) multiple perforations of the vanes More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A resistance-welded carbon steel superheater tube made to ASME SA-276 specifications failed by pitting corrosion and subsequent perforation, which caused the tube to leak. The perforation was found to have occurred at a low point in a bend near the superheater outlet header...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... was to determine whether the hose failed during or before the accident. Fracture in the failed clamp was accompanied by obvious permanent deformation and evidence of local shearing at the ends of the perforation where fracture occurred, and in the adjacent perforation. The first test involved tightening the clamps...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... surfaces during the cooling process. Air flow over the tubes reversed direction every 585 mm as a result of baffling placed in the heat exchangers. An uneven ridgelike thinning and perforation of the tube wall on the leeward side of the tube was revealed by visual examination. Undercut pits on the outer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091384
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... perforations and cracking along its axis. The perforations and the crack were at the 6 o'clock position. Investigation (visual inspection, radiography, unetched macrographs, and tensile testing) supported the conclusion that the failure occurred as result of years of exposure to ground water in the soil...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0047606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract Type 316L stainless steel pipes carrying brine at 120 deg C (250 deg F) and at a pH of about 7, failed by perforation at or near circumferential butt-weld seams. The failure was examined optically and radiographically in the field. Specimens were removed and examined metallographically...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... examination of sections cut from the cracked area identified lamellar tearing as the principle cause of the cracking. This was surprising in 6 mm thick hull plates. Corrosion fatigue and general corrosion also contributed to hull plate perforation. Although it is probable that more lamellar tears exist near...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... Abstract Plate perforation occurred in the cylindrical section and walls of the inlet foot (2.38 mm thick Incoloy 825 plate welded using INCO welding rod 135) of an inert gas fire prevention system in an oil tanker. Cross-sectional microprobe analysis showed the corrosion product to contain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract High-chromium steel pipes 42.25 x 3.25 mm from a blast furnace gas fired recuperator for the preheating of air were heavily oxidized and perforated in places. It was found that the blast furnace gas had a high sulfur content. Both the carburization and the formation of sulfide proved...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... with mixed acids, metallographic examination, and chemical analysis) supported the conclusions that the premature failure of the tube by perforation at the hearth level resulted from (1) corrosion caused by sulfur contamination from the refractory cement in contact with the tube and (2) severe local...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Two cases of failure of centrifuge baskets were investigated. The first involved a centrifuge running at approximately 1000 rpm. The basket was constructed from a perforated sheet of stainless steel rolled into a cylinder and joined by a single vee longitudinal weld. Detailed...