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Oxide scales

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Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 Fracture surface at position A ( Fig. 1 ), illustrating compact oxide scale region within dotted line. More
Image
Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 2 ( a ) SEM-BSED micrograph of the interface of oxide scale on the inner wall with the substrate, ( b ) higher magnification image of the inset in ( a ); ( c ) EDS spectrum for oxide close to substrate More
Image
Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 3 SEM Micrographs of ( a ) the outside oxide scale and its interface with the substrate, ( b ) corresponding BSED micrograph, and the inset in higher magnification. ( c , d ) EDS spectrum for oxide close to substrate More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 37 Steamside oxide scale buildup thickness versus thermocouple measurements for a 2 1 4 Cr-1Mo tube compared to predicted values using a code More
Image
Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 4 Back-scattered image, along with spot analysis, across metal/oxide scale region of a grate bar. Area Composition, % Fe Cr Ni S Cl Ca Al Si 1 1.85 95.37 0.68 0.42 0.18 0.18 0.48 0.85 2 38.96 3.74 55.23 0.29 0.016 0.08 0.92 0.61 3 71.26 12.56 More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 71 Closer view of elbow inner surface. (a) Overview, uniform oxide scale, and corroded areas. USGW, upstream girth weld; DSGW, downstream girth weld. (b) Severe corrosion occurred around the DSGW at 12 o’clock. (c) Brittle oxide scale chipped by flow/particle impingement. (d) Mill More
Image
Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 3 Magnetic particle indications of oxide scale forged into the steering arm More
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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 5 Oxide scale inclusions forged into the inner radius of the steering arm More
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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 6 Weibull analysis of the depth of forged-in oxide scale More
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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 7 Statistical frequency distribution of the depth of forged-in oxide scale More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ≥415 ≥220 ≥30 Steam oxide scale and substrate composition determined by EDS, wt.% Table 2 Steam oxide scale and substrate composition determined by EDS, wt.% EDS-analysis Cr O Si Mo Mn Fe Substrate 1.09 0.36 0.29 0.26 0.67 Balance Oxidation zone 1.99 2.53 0.12...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., revealed that fatigue crack initiation occurred from the tip of oxide scale inclusions forged into the U-shaped arm at the inside radius. Corrective action involved redesigning the steering arm to increase the minimum forging radius and reduce the stress level at the inner-bend radius, and reducing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., which resulted from heating during welding. Electron probe x-ray microanalysis showed the outside surface of the tube did not have the protective chromium oxide scale normally found on Incoloy 800. The inside surface of the tube had a thin chromium oxide protective scale. This evidence supported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... Abstract Following leakage which developed within the furnace of a horizontal multi-tubular type boiler, examination revealed a series of cracks adjacent to the stiffening rings in the first plain furnace ring. The fire-side surface of the sample was coated with a layer of oxide scale...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract Brief overheating of the 89 mm OD 6.4 mm wall thickness titanium heater tubes (ASTM B337, grade 2) was caused by a flow stoppage in a leach heater. Blue-tinted areas and patches of flaky white, yellow, and brown oxide scale was revealed on visual examination. It was disclosed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001482
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... with an oxide scale in which were embedded particles having the appearance of metallic copper. It was concluded that the cracking that occurred at the time of re-welding was due to intergranular penetration by copper present in the deposit within the tubes, which had not been completely removed prior to welding...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... evaluations, the creep cavitation damage assessment, the oxide-scale-based life prediction, and high-temperature crack growth methods. coating evaluation creep cavitation damage assessment elevated-temperature failure gas turbine blade hardness testing high-temperature crack growth methods life...
Image
Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 1 Service-exposed Reheater tube ( a ) appearance of failure tubes, with deposit on fire-side and inner oxide scale peeling off, ( b ) pits on outside surface, and ( c ) Cross section micrograph of the inner oxide scale detected by SEM More
Image
Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 3 Micrographs of grate bar that suffered hot corrosion. (a) Unetched, showing external oxide scale and internal sulfide particles (light gray area). (b) Etched, showing external oxide scale along with precipitated carbides (dark gray area)and lamellar structure consisting of austenite More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... spectroscopy Oxide scales Thermodynamics Incoloy 800H UNS N08800 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Introduction After 9 years in service the transfer line of an ethane-cracking furnace developed a leak during decoking of the furnace tubes. The purpose of the furnace is to heat saturate...