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Oxidation

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001738
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... showed that the cracking could not be caused by creep. It was found that the cracking was confined to a 4-mm deep coarse-grained zone (ASTM 0-1) at the outer diameter. The cracking appeared to be caused by strain-induced intergranular oxidation. When the cracks reached the fine-grained material, the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... holes' surface was not coated. Investigation supported the conclusions that the cracking at the cooling holes was due to grain-boundary oxidation and nitridation at the cooling hole surface, embrittlement and loss of local ductility of the base alloy, temperature gradient from the airfoil surface to the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... suggested that it had resulted from surface defects. A decarburized surface layer and subsurface oxidation in the vicinity of pitting were revealed by metallographic examination of the 2% nital etched gear tooth sample. It was concluded that pitting had resulted as a combination of both the defects. The...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... molecular degradation caused by the service conditions. Specifically, the part material had undergone severe chemical attack, including oxidation and hydrolysis, through contact with silver chloride. The source of the silver chloride was not established, but one potential source was photographic silver...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001726
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A carbon steel furnace tube which should have given good service for ten years ruptured after one year. The tube showed obvious swelling at the point of rupture, and the bulged surface of the tube was oxidized at a temperature far above the design temperature. There was little or no...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... collapse of the duct. Carbides and carbonitrides were found in all of the transitions examined. Investigation supported the conclusion that failure was caused by oxidation, oxide penetration, and oxide spallation which caused thinning of the duct wall. It was felt that the high oxygen and nitrogen partial...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... failure involved overheating of the Cr-Mo outlet tubes, heavy oxidation, oxide cracking on thermal cycling, thermal fatigue cracking plus oxidation, creep-controlled crack growth, and rapid plastic deformation and rupture. This failure was indicative of excess temperature of the steam coming from the heat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract High-chromium steel pipes 42.25 x 3.25 mm from a blast furnace gas fired recuperator for the preheating of air were heavily oxidized and perforated in places. It was found that the blast furnace gas had a high sulfur content. Both the carburization and the formation of sulfide proved...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Two 25 x 40 mm (1 x 1.5 in.) AISI 4150 hot-rolled steel bars that cracked during heat treatment were examined to determine whether the heat treating procedure had contributed to the failure. Metallographic examination of a cross section taken through the fracture revealed an oxide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0045909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... were obtained from the inclusions and from the steel matrix. The inclusion spectrum contained primarily iron and oxygen, whereas the matrix spectrum contained primarily iron. X-ray maps were made to show the distribution of iron and oxygen. These results indicated that the inclusions were iron oxide. A...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... supposedly did not exceed 1050 deg C. Structural observations indicated a special case of internal oxidation. The required conditions for this were apparently provided by the moist hydrogen atmosphere of the annealing furnace, in which the chromium was oxidized, while the oxides of iron and nickel were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... 1150 deg C. This type of selective oxidation at which the easily oxidized chromium burns, while the nickel is not attacked, is caused by mildly oxidizing gases and is sometimes designated as green rot. Under these conditions, chromium-containing steels and alloys whose oxidation resistance is based...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract The failure of T12 reheater tubes that had been in service for only 3000 h was investigated. The thickness of the tubes was visibly reduced by heavy oxidation corrosion on the inner and outer walls. The original pearlite substrate completely decomposed. Uniform oxide scale observed on...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091726
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... Recommendations included revising the specification to require a minimum NO content of 0.6%. Nitrogen dioxide Pressure vessels Propellant tanks Ti-6Al-4V UNS R56406 Stress-corrosion cracking Nitrogen tetroxide, a storable hypergolic oxidizer, was used in the service propulsion system (SPS) and in...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0006417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A cadmium-plated 4340 Ni-Cr-Mo steel ballast elbow assembly was submitted for failure analysis to determine the element or radical present in an oxidation product found inside the elbow assembly. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis in the SEM showed that iron was the predominant species...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract A full lift disk, made of die cast brass, which served as a lifting aid in a safety valve, had cracked in service at a number of locations in the vicinity of the threaded hole. During microscopic examination, agglomeration of oxide inclusions were noted in the region of the cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... Abstract Following leakage which developed within the furnace of a horizontal multi-tubular type boiler, examination revealed a series of cracks adjacent to the stiffening rings in the first plain furnace ring. The fire-side surface of the sample was coated with a layer of oxide scale...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001623
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
..., nickel, and aluminum. The visual appearance, along with the EDS findings, suggested these elements were present in the form of oxides. These oxides were likely deposited from adjacent structural components of the furnace, which had oxidized during operation. Chemical analysis Discoloration...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., which resulted from heating during welding. Electron probe x-ray microanalysis showed the outside surface of the tube did not have the protective chromium oxide scale normally found on Incoloy 800. The inside surface of the tube had a thin chromium oxide protective scale. This evidence supported the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract Carbon steel tubes from a boiler feedwater heater feeding a deaerator were treated to control scale formation, but the treatment instead produced more iron oxide. The additional iron oxide reduced the tubing to a totally corroded condition. Investigation showed that the chelate...