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Optical microscopy

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 Portable optical microscopy revealing plating nodules in the nondiscolored area of the cylinder (left). A rougher surface texture is noted in the discolored region (right), along with adherent deposits. More
Image
Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 4 Microstructures observed by means of optical microscopy: ( a ) wire spacer, consisting of recrystallized ferrite–pearlite grains; ( b ) HAZ between wire spacer and weld metal consisting of partially recrystallized ferrite grains; ( c ) weld metal composed of proeutectoid and acicular More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 20 Optical microscopy image of fracture surfaces of a knee implant hinge post, which fractured in vivo More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 21 Optical microscopy images of the subject hinge post fragment fracture surfaces, with beach marks clearly evident More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 29 Optical microscopy image of part of the fracture surface of a bone fixation plate. Beach marks can be seen in the image emanating from the filleted radius at the top (medial side) of the fixation hole. More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 32 Optical and scanning electron microscopy images of origin location of near-neutral-pH SCC showing multiple dark thumbnail-shaped cracks extending from the outer diameter (OD) and coalescing, and a small region of ductile overload between the crack and inner diameter (ID) More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., a detailed metallurgical investigation of failed rope wires was made and included visual examination, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Two types of failed wires were investigated; one is from a 40 mm diameter locked coil track rope and the other...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Babbit microstructure. (a) The presence of α (gray matrix), β (cubic crystals), and η (arrow) phases (optical microscopy). (b) View of α phase (scanning electron microscopy). (c) Gas bubble (arrow) (optical microscopy). More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... Abstract Failure analysis was performed on threaded Ti-6Al-4V fasteners that had fractured in the threads during installation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical metallography revealed that the fractures initiated in circumferential shear bands present at the thread roots...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...-cast alloy, AA 712.0. Metallographic evaluation via optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed a high degree of porosity in the microstructure as well as the presence of deleterious intermetallic compounds within interdendritic regions. Macrohardness testing produced hardness values...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001490
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
..., transmission electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and x-ray microanalysis in conjunction with dimensional analysis, phase diagrams and thermodynamics considerations were employed to evaluate the various hypotheses. All evidence pointed to an oxide mass in the area where the hole developed, likely...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... by visual inspection, hardness traverses, radiography, dye penetrant inspection, chemical analysis, macrometallography, optical microscopy, and electron microscopy. The crown of one piston had a rough, crumbly deposit, which was detachable with a knife. Two pistons had remains of carbonaceous deposits...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... assembly revealed tensile properties well below the allowable design values. Radiology and CT evaluations revealed no casting defects. Optical microscopy revealed porosity uniformly distributed throughout the casting on the order of 0.1 mm pore diam. Scanning electron microscopy revealed elongated pores...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001717
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... to visual inspection/light optical microscopy, metallography, electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, chemical analysis, and mechanical testing. It was observed that the vacuum cadmium coating adjacent to the fracture plane had worn off and corroded in service, thus allowing pitting corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
.... Determination of the cause of the explosion was the primary objective of the examination. Metallographic studies included the examination of BFAs fabricated from two different types of alloys that were tested for shock reaction. Optical microscopy supported by electron microscopy and analytical methods were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... macroscopic overview of the fracture surface on the pump axis. Fracture origin indicated Abstract The shafts on two centrifugal pumps failed during use in a petroleum refinery. Light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyze the damaged materials to determine the cause...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to document the crack morphology using optical microscopy. In addition to cracking, golden-yellow streaks were visible at the extrados, and the composition was examined using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Based on the results, investigators concluded the pipe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... that contacted the bushing and areas at the machined radius where the cadmium coating had been damaged, which allowed corrosion pitting to occur. Optical microscopy showed that the crack origin was located at the machined radius within a region that was severely pitted. Electron microscopy revealed that most...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047192
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... flat fracture surfaces with no apparent yielding, but the two large segments did show evidence of bending (yielding) near the fractures. In addition, some segments contained fine radial cracks. Analysis (visual inspection, optical microscopy on polished-and-etched specimens, hardness testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... and stripping the nuts from the other two bolts, which remained unbroken. SEM fractography of the fracture surfaces of the four broken bolts indicated that the failure was due to reversed bending fatigue. Optical microscopy indicated that the bolts were heat treated to a tempered martensite structure...