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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... by erosion were noticeable. This was a typical case of crevice corrosion. The rolled joint evidently was not entirely tight, so that saturated steam condensate could penetrate into the gap. Heat exchangers Oil burners Pipe Fe-0.15C Pitting corrosion Erosion - corrosion Crevice corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A sleeve-shaped fire shield that operates inside one of two burner trains in an oil and gas processing unit ruptured after 15 y of service. A detailed analysis was conducted to determine how and why the sleeve failed. The investigation included visual inspection, chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001440
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... a temperature as high as 450°C at the time of the fire. Although the cracking of steel due to intergranular penetration by soft solder is not common, there are a few examples quoted in the rather scanty technical literature oil the subject. [1] The essential features seem to be fairly well established...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... by gas or oil burners, gives rise to rapid steam formation resulting in steam blanketing, which prevents the access of water to the tube material and consequently local overheating takes place. Dissipation of the heat along the tube wall and condensation of steam ultimately serve to re-establish...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Waterwall tube failure samples removed from a coal- and oil-fired boiler in service for 12 years exhibited localized underdeposit corrosion and hydrogen damage. EDS and XRD revealed that bulk internal deposits collected from the tubes contained metallic copper which can...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...” to the material actually ordered and lacked the oil-resisting capabilities of the material actually ordered by the component manufacturer. To the motor manufacturer the cause of the failure appeared clear: Substandard material had been made into components that disintegrated in service, causing premature motor...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... determinations—for example, which of several damaged components failed first—can be made on the basis of careful on-site examination. The relationship of the location of the failure to the locations of other system components—for example, the location of a tube rupture in relation to those of burners or soot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... is a reaction which has long been known. According to Wilson [ 1 ], one case of graphitization in tubes of a thermal cracking furnace in an oil refinery was reported in the United States in 1935. The incident aroused no interest, as the graphite nodules had a random distribution, and the analysis showed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... clearance control, piping, and services, are proposed. Purchased items, such as bearings, seals, and lube oil pumps, are coordinated with vendors to provide engineering justification for the size and fit. Analysis is performed at a level sufficient to determine that the proposed embodiment design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and Deposits Water-Wall Corrosion or Reduced Atmosphere Corrosion Coal-Ash Corrosion Oil-Ash Corrosion Case Study: Rupture of a Finned Water-Wall Tube because of Oil-Ash Corrosion Low-Temperature Corrosion or Acid Dewpoint Corrosion Case Study: Failure of an Economizer Drain Tube due to Acid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... adequate flow through workload Nonuniform agitation causes temperature gradients within workload and part May not be uniform Rolling on surface is poor guide to agitation Must be measured or modeled Type of quenchant Brine, water, oil, polymer, gas, air Quench rate must...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
..., passed at 1150 psig. The sour gas was heated to 600 deg F by burners playing on the outside of the tube burning “sweet” gas plus air. The inner and outer surfaces of all samples showed evidence of corrosive attack. Electron probe microanalysis showed the corrosion products contained sulfur with iron...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... containing 0.45% C. Austenitization temperature, 880 °C (1620 °F). Courtesy of Verlag Stahlessen mbH Dusseldorf Caution: Although it is becoming increasingly common to see cooling curves (temperature-time profiles) for different quenchants, such as oil, water, air, and others, superimposed on either...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 14. Grabke H.J. , Brancho-Troconis C.B. , and Múller-Lorenz E.M. , Metal Dusting of Low Alloy Steels , Mater. Corros. , Vol 45 , 1995 , p 215 10.5006/1.3293634 15. Schillmoller C.M. , Solving High-Temperature Problems in Oil Refineries and Petrochemical Plants...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of the burner orifices (fuel and dilution air), and air/fuel flow rates, are determinants of the temperature distribution of combustion. Significant local temperature excursions have escaped detection by engine monitoring systems. For example, liquid hydrocarbon droplets in a gaseous fuel have been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Examination of the propeller blades showed that all four blades failed at the root due to tensile overload. It was determined that a failed torque piston on the No. 3 blade caused excessive loads on the torque cylinder, which caused it to fail in fatigue. The failed torque cylinder resulted in loss of oil...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be important that failure not occur without warning and that the metal retain high elongation and reduction in area throughout its service life. In the oil and chemical industries, for instance, many applications of tubing under high pressure require high long-time ductility, so that impending rupture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for major oil refiners is failures or near-failures that can be attributed to insufficient alloy content in steels for hydrogen service. In one example, a carbon steel pipe section failed that was inadvertently substituted for the specified 1.25Cr-0.5Mo steel. This 305-mm (12-in.) diam line ruptured after...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...—Nondestructive Examination ASME B31.3—Process Piping ASME B31.1—Power Piping API 650—Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage API 620—Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks API 530—Calculation of Heater Tube Thickness in Petroleum Refineries Inspection codes: API...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... without warning and that the metallic component retain high elongation and reduction in area throughout its service life. For instance, in the oil and chemical industries, many applications of tubing under high pressure require high long-time ductility, so that impending rupture is evident from...