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Normalizing (heat treatment)

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... that chemical segregation contributed to the hard areas. Postweld normalized heat treatment apparently did not sufficiently reduce the hardness of these areas. Oil field equipment, corrosion Pipe, corrosion Sour gas, environment Sulfide stress cracking Sulfides, environment Welded joints, corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
.... All flame-cut surfaces were ground to remove notches. Flame cutting Heat affected zone Normalizing (heat treatment) Weldments 1020 UNS G10200 Joining-related failures Brittle fracture A section broke from a stop-block guide ( Fig. 1 ) on a crane runway and fell to the floor. A system...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0089572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... and tempering to achieve better mechanical properties. Brittle fracture Casting defects Cracking (fracturing) Equilizer beams Foundry practice Gating and risering Normalizing (heat treatment) Tempering Trucks ASTM A148 grade 105-85 UNS D50850 Casting-related failures Heat treating-related...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048068
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... measure, the chain-sling hook was replaced with one made of normalized, fully killed, finegrain 1020 steel. Acicular structure Cranes Normalizing (heat treatment) 1015 UNS G10150 Metalworking-related failures Fatigue fracture A hook on a two-leg chain broke while lifting a 4990-kg (11,000...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0089456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
..., together with its higher alloy content, makes the region more responsive to what would have been normal heat treatment for this grade of tool steel. The high-hardness material is also subject to microcracking on quenching; microcracks can act as nuclei for subsequent fatigue cracks. Examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... hooks were flame cut from ASTM A242 fine-grain steel plate, ground to remove the material damaged by flame cutting and stress relieved at 620 deg C. Cranes Flame cutting Hooks Martensite Normalizing (heat treatment) 1040 UNS G10400 Fatigue fracture A 10,890-kg (12-ton) coil hook failed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the improvement gained from the normalizing heat treatment that the heavily banded microstructure was the chief cause of the poor impact values. Fig. 1 Ductility transition curves from impact test results. Discussion The test data and observations show that although the material met...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the weld, equating to an effective “quench” in normal heat treatment practice. In addition to poor fatigue strength in the resulting weld joints, some hot cracking was apparent, but not at the fracture origin. Case History #4 - Weld Filler Metal Cracking A carbon steel actuator that exhibited...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001722
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... not exceeding 65 t.p.s.i., or have been nitrided, no further heat treatment is normally required before plating. In the case of parts made from steel hardened and tempered to a tensile range exceeding 65 t.p.s.i., or which have been carburised, flame-or induction-hardened, or carbonitrided, it is preferable...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... been made tough by heat treatment, all test specimens were subjected to quenching from 850° C in water and tempering to 500° C, and then broken again. The result was the picture reproduced in Fig. 2 . The fracture of bars 1 and 2 with high aluminum content is almost completely conchoidal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0009222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in heat treatment. In this instance, the precise reason for failure is unknown, but the classification helps to establish a relationship between the various factors and indicates areas of repeated failure. Design Influences Tool Life If tools wear out in normal service, we assume that the design...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0046182
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... of the cap. The defect extended approximately 9.5 mm (3/8 in.) along the side of the cap. The fracture surface exhibited beach marks typical of fatigue. The surface of the defect was stained, indicating that oxidation occurred either in heat treatment or in heating during forging. Deep etching...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... had not fractured, but exhibited circumferential cracks on the surface of the central zone. Visual surface examination and metallographic and chemical analyses were performed on the specimens. Cracking was attributed primarily to poor heat treatment, resulting in a brittle grain-boundary network...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... medium-carbon investment castings must receive a carbon-restoration treatment prior to or during the hardening treatment. Forgings : Parts before forging are normally heated to forging temperatures without the benefit of protective atmospheres. Therefore, unless a carbon-restoration process has been...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... Recommendations It was recommended that replacement elbows be heat treated to produce a pearlitic malleable microstructure, which has longer life under the given conditions of service. (Additional information on the heat treatment and properties of ferritic and pearlitic malleable irons is provided...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A precipitation-hardened stainless steel poppet valve assembly used to shut off the flow of hydrazine fuel to an auxiliary power unit was found to leak. SEM and optical micrographs revealed that the final heat treatment designed for the AM-350 bellows material rendered the AM-355...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... with a weak grain-boundary network of ferrite that had not been corrected by postweld heat treatment. The combination of the cracks and this unfavorable microstructure provided a weakened condition that resulted in catastrophic, brittle fracture under normal applied loads. Corrective Measure The design...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... that the presence of chromic acid stain on the fracture surface proved that the forging had cracked before anodizing. This suggest that the crack initiated during straightening, either after machining or after heat treatment. The structure and composition of the alloy appear to have been acceptable. Ductility...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... is given a rating of 10, and a magnetic material, such as plain carbon steel, is assigned a rating of 0. Specimens cut from the link were tested for magnetism after various heat treatments with the following results: Micrographs of specimens from the as-received link ( Fig. 1c and d ) display...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... environments, a preferential attack takes place in an intercrystalline (intergranular) manner along the grain boundaries resulting in the detachment of whole grains and a rapid loss of coherence of the material. There have been three basic approaches to the problem: Heat treatment of the fabrication...