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Nitric acid, environment

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... inlet and replacement of the floating skirt with virgin material (i.e., material unaffected by weld repairs). Chemical processing equipment Condenser tubes, corrosion Condensers (liquefiers) Heat-affected zone Nitric acid, environment Repair welding Tube plate, corrosion Welded joints...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... impermeable to the diffusion of ionic species was recommended. Chemical processing equipment Nitric acid, environment Spools, corrosion Sulfuric acid, environment Teflon-lined carbon steel Intergranular corrosion Stress-corrosion cracking Selected References • Lampman S...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... stresses would be greatest. The compressor intake was situated in the vicinity of nitric acid pumps which had a history of leakage troubles, and which had evidently given rise to the nitrates found on the impeller. Air compressors Chlorides Corrosion environments Impellers Nitric acid Pumps Fe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... segregation in the original plate served as preferential corrosion sites. Had the tanks been hydrostatically tested in a proper manner, the pitting may not have occurred. Corrosion environments Nitric acid Sewage Solvents Storage tanks 304L UNS S30403 Pitting corrosion Biological corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, and chlorine. Investigation into the processing history of the part showed the tenacious oxide film formed by the affinity of niobium for oxygen - even when heat treated in a vacuum – was removed with a combination of strong acids: nitric, hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... change to type 304 stainless steel tubing made without dendritic weld seams was recommended. Heat-affected zone Nitric acid, environment Papermaking Welded joints, corrosion Inconel 600 UNS N06600 Uniform corrosion Galvanic corrosion References 1. “Corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Numerous cracks observed on the surface of a forged A470 Class 4 alloy steel steam turbine rotor disc from an air compressor in a nitric acid plant were found to be the result of caustic induced stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). No material defects or anomalies were observed in the disc...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... introduced in service in various ways are a major contributing factor. Of major concern in connection with failure by mechanical-environmental processes is the combined effect of stress raisers and environment. Stress concentrations are frequently introduced in service by damage from accidental...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001584
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... regarding that false claim. In analyzing the Port Neal explosion, we inspected the available physical evidence, considered the recovery locations of debris after the explosion and performed independent laboratory examinations of physical evidence. We also examined titanium nitric acid spargers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... air, lead in sulfate-containing environments, and stainless steel in humid air creating passive films. In general terms, uniform corrosion can be classified further according to the specific conditions of environmental or electrochemical attack. For example, uniform thinning can be attributed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... prepare a valid galvanic series for a given materials and environment of interest, all the factors affecting the potential must be addressed. This includes material composition, heat treatment, surface preparation (mill scale, coatings surface finish, etc.), environmental composition (trace contaminants...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... corrosion. For example, stainless steel owes its corrosion-resistant properties to a passive surface film. The naturally occurring passive film is usually enhanced with immersion in a hot nitric acid solution or steam. For example, stainless steel surgical implants develop this passive layer when the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... metal surface is protected from corrosion. For example, stainless steel owes its corrosion-resistant properties to a passive surface film. The naturally occurring passive film is usually enhanced with immersion in a hot nitric acid solution or steam. For example, stainless steel surgical implants...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...). Etched with equal parts nitric and acetic acid. 375× Impingement attack, or erosion-corrosion, occurs where gases, vapors, or liquids impinge on metal surfaces at high velocities. The erosive action removes protective films from localized areas at the metal surface, thereby contributing to the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... casting at ~5% airfoil span. Etchant: 33% glycerol, 33% nitric acid, 33% acetic acid, and 1–3% hydrofluoric acid. Casting contains no grain boundaries. Source: Ref 20 Fig. 13 (a) Heater tube that failed due to stress rupture. (b) and (c) Stress-rupture voids near the fracture. Source: Ref 18...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... determining the presence of residual stresses in cold-worked copper-alloy components. This test involves: (1) degreasing in acetone, (2) immersing in nitric acid (40 vol%) for ≤30 s, (3) rinsing in water, and (4) immersing in acidified mercurous nitrate solution for 30 min. Liquid mercury is plated out onto...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be at a higher temperature and thus the wear rates could be profoundly influenced both by temperature and environment; such effects are discussed in the section “Environmental Effects.” Many years of work ( Ref 35 ) indicated that the combination of impact and fretting was more severe than...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in bulk material containing mostly alpha phase ( a ) 100× and ( b ) 500×, etchant: 45 mL nitric acid and 45 mL acetic acid Fig. 4 Selectively attacked region near the surface contained dealloying ( a ) 12.5× and ( b ) 50×, etchant: 45 mL nitric acid and 45 mL acetic acid. Figure 5 is a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... showing overlapping regions of dendrites. Etched in electrolytic nitric acid. 15×. Fig. 9 Micrograph showing niobium carbides in interdendritic spaces. Etched in electrolytic nitric acid. 1000×. Open cracks ran along the dendrites in some locations. The direction of these cracks sometimes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... Corrosion of 5xxx Series Aluminum Alloys by Weight Loss after Exposure to Nitric Acid (NAWLT Test),” G 67, Wear and Erosion; Metal Corrosion , Vol 03.02 , Annual Book of ASTM Standards , American Society for Testing and Materials Selected Reference • Freeman S.R. , Analysis and...