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Nitric acid

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract An E-Brite /Ferralium explosively bonded tube sheet in a nitric acid condenser was removed from service because of corrosion. Visual and metallographic examination of tube sheet samples revealed severe cracking in the heat-affected zone between the outer tubes and the weld joining the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... been exposed to the process stream was discolored. Failure of the spool was attributed to stress-corrosion cracking promoted by the presence of nitrates. Nitric acid contaminant in the sulfuric acid stream had diffused through the liner and accumulated in the annular space. Use of a liner that is more...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract An air compressor was installed at a chemical plant in which nitric acid was produced by burning ammonia with air. It was a 5000 hp, 5-stage centrifugal machine running at 6000 rpm, compressing air to 5 atm. Failure of the first stage impeller occurred due to a segment from the back...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... filled with nitric acid in preparation for service. Three weeks later the two acid tanks were found to be leaking from the bottom. Samples from the spent solvent tank revealed that pitting was located in a depressed area near a suction hole, beneath a black residue. It was concluded that the acid tanks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... Investigation (visual inspection, 95x unetched images, chemical testing with a 5% salt spray, chemical testing with sodium hypochlorite at three strength levels, samples were also pickled in an aqueous solution containing 15 vol% concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) and 3 vol% concentrated hydrofluoric acid (HF) and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Numerous cracks observed on the surface of a forged A470 Class 4 alloy steel steam turbine rotor disc from an air compressor in a nitric acid plant were found to be the result of caustic induced stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). No material defects or anomalies were observed in the disc...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the base metal immediately adjacent to the weld seam. The corrosion was attributed to exposure to nitric acid cleaning solution and was accelerated by galvanic differences between the tubes and a stainless steel tube sheet and between the base metal of the tubes and their dendritic weld seams. A...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Beveled weld-joint V-sections were fabricated to connect inlet and outlet sections of tubes in a type 347 stainless steel heat exchanger for a nitric acid concentrator. Each V-section was permanently marked with the tube numbers by a small electric-arc pencil. After one to two years of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, and chlorine. Investigation into the processing history of the part showed the tenacious oxide film formed by the affinity of niobium for oxygen - even when heat treated in a vacuum – was removed with a combination of strong acids: nitric, hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001584
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... regarding that false claim. In analyzing the Port Neal explosion, we inspected the available physical evidence, considered the recovery locations of debris after the explosion and performed independent laboratory examinations of physical evidence. We also examined titanium nitric acid spargers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... exceed the nickel content Fig. 3 Typical microstructure in bulk material containing mostly alpha phase ( a ) 100× and ( b ) 500×, etchant: 45 mL nitric acid and 45 mL acetic acid Fig. 4 Selectively attacked region near the surface contained dealloying ( a ) 12.5× and ( b ) 50...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of austenite grains. Niobium-bearing carbides were present in interdendritic spaces ( Fig. 9 ). Fig. 8 Micrograph showing overlapping regions of dendrites. Etched in electrolytic nitric acid. 15×. Fig. 9 Micrograph showing niobium carbides in interdendritic spaces. Etched in...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001705
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... 9.00–13.00 0.08 Nb: 10C min, 1.00 max Inconel 600 bal 13 79 - - The first failure was attributed to corrosion from intergranular attack. It is well known that steel containing at least 11 percent chromium is unattacked in nitric acid because of the tendency to produce chromium oxide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... propagated mainly across the grains. After electrolytic grain boundary etching in aqueous nitric acid, Fig. 3 , this can be seen particularly clearly. Twin boundaries also fail to deflect the cracks from their original direction, which is determined solely by the stress ( Fig. 3 ). Fig. 2 Cross...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... the corrosion-free region, unetched. 100 × Fig. 8 Structure of corrosion-free region. Etching treatment: V2A-etching solution. 200 × Fig. 9 Structure of corrosion-free region. Etching treatment: 50% aqueous solution of nitric acid, 2 V 3 min. 500 × Fig. 10 Structure of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...-polished specimen revealed no intergranular oxidation. Etching the specimen with a 10% sulfuric acid and 10% nitric acid solution revealed no evidence of burning or overheating of the steel. An area containing shallow surface folds was found on the outer face of one cheek of the throw on forging 1 ( Fig...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...% nitric acid to reveal indications of a weld deposit as depicted in Figure 3 . As will be seen from Figure 4 , the root of the welded zone was defective, showing porosity and globules of weld metal. Fig. 3 Etched surface of hook showing weld deposit adjacent to fracture origin. Fig. 4...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with 3% nital. 50× The heat pattern produced by service conditions can generally be revealed by macroetching. Figure 46 shows the face of a 12.7-cm (5-in.) wide AISI S7 cutter blade that was cold etched (10% aqueous nitric acid) after resharpening. The heat pattern is visible along the working...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ∼ 5% airfoil span. Casting contains no grain boundaries. Etchant: 33% glycerol, 33% nitric acid, 33% acetic acid, and 1–3% hydrofluoric acid Another common microstructural observation for stress-rupture events in nickel-based superalloy turbine airfoils is the partial solutioning, rafting, and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... definitely intergranular. Initial metallographic examination with etchants typically used for copper-base alloys revealed little difference between the two tubes. When an etchant with a small amount of silver nitrate added to the nitric acid was used, the grain boundaries of the embrittled tube were attacked...