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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001584
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... Abstract On 13 Dec 1994, two massive detonations leveled portions of an ammonium nitrate plant near Sioux City, IA. The primary explosion allegedly occurred in defectively-designed titanium sparger piping inside the neutralizer vessel. Investigation however, revealed the explosion occurred...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0091598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... Abstract After 10 to 20 months of service, the carbon steel hoppers on three trucks used to transport bulk ammonium nitrate prills developed extensive cracking in the upper walls. The prills were discharged from the steel hoppers using air superchargers that generated an unloading pressure...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 Decomposition to explosion — Ammonium nitrate decomposition and explosion in neutralizer. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 5 Full scale neutralizer tank test with ammonium nitrate. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 7 Pipe coupling cracked after immersion in 1.5% mercuric nitrate solution. 0.8× More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 6 Image of exemplar connectors after mercurous nitrate testing More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0006898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... Abstract Several fuses made of nickel silver (57 to 61% Cu, 11 to 13% Ni, bal Zn) exposed to air containing ammonium and nitrate ions failed by SCC. Test solutions of 1 N ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and a 1:1 mixture of 1 N sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and 1 N calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3) 2) were prepared...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0047611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Several tubes in a tube bundle in an evaporator used to concentrate an acid nitrate solution failed by leakage. The feed to the evaporator contained about 6% nitrate, and the discharge about 60% nitrate. The tube bundle was comprised of type 309S (Nb) stainless steel drawn-and-welded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... on Anionic Species Component Content, ppm Chloride 57 Nitrate 1050 Phosphate <370 Sulfate 150 Results of Ion-Coupled Plasma-Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-ES) Analyses Table 3 Results of Ion-Coupled Plasma-Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-ES) Analyses Component Weld Sample...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... water. To check for chlorides, the inside of the tubing was rinsed with distilled water, and the rinse water was collected in a clean beaker. A few drops of silver nitrate solution were added to the rinse water, which clouded slightly because of the formation of insoluble silver chloride...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091694
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... because of unrelated tube failures. Sanitary (chlorinated) well water was generally used in the system, although filtered process make-up water (river water) containing ammonia was occasionally used. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, mercurous nitrate testing, unetched 5X micrographs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... stresses would be greatest. The compressor intake was situated in the vicinity of nitric acid pumps which had a history of leakage troubles, and which had evidently given rise to the nitrates found on the impeller. Air compressors Chlorides Corrosion environments Impellers Nitric acid Pumps Fe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091690
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... commonly used ferrule was 3.5 cm long by 7.5 cm in diam and was drawn from 0.5 mm (0.020 in.) thick strip. Investigation (visual inspection, metallographic examination, and a mercurous nitrate test, which is an accelerated test used to detect residual stress in copper and copper alloys) of both ferrules...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... been exposed to the process stream was discolored. Failure of the spool was attributed to stress-corrosion cracking promoted by the presence of nitrates. Nitric acid contaminant in the sulfuric acid stream had diffused through the liner and accumulated in the annular space. Use of a liner that is more...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... However, an electron probe microanalysis performed on a microspecimen did not reveal any mercury at or near the cracks. Chemical analysis of the lithium bromide solution revealed significant quantities of nitrates in the solution. Such nitrates are normally added to the lithium bromide solution to act...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Chemical species present on the electrical connectors Table 1 Chemical species present on the electrical connectors Species Mass (μg) Chloride 28 Nitrate 4.3 Nitrite 0.6 Sulfate 48 Fig. 6 Image of exemplar connectors after mercurous nitrate testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... in the operating system and on test coupons exposed to the operating environment. Nitrate-reducing bacteria from the lakewater used in cooling were found to produce high levels of ammonia (5.8 mg/L) when established in biofilms. Ammonia levels at the metal surface were 300 times higher than background levels...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Nital-etched specimen of ASTM A 245 carbon steel. Micrograph shows SCC that occurred in a concentrated solution of ammonium nitrate. 100× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 21 Nital-etched specimen of ASTM A 245 carbon steel. Micrograph shows SCC that occurred in a concentrated solution of ammonium nitrate. 100× More
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Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 6 Transgranular branching crack in blade prior to addition of weld buildup at blade-to-hub attachment. Titanium carbide/nitrate particles and their tracks from polishing are visible. Oxalic acid electrolytic etch. 50×. More