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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract A welded natural gas line of 400 mm OD and 9 mm wall thickness made of unalloyed steel with 0.22C had to be removed from service after four months because of a pipe burst. Metallographic examination showed the pipe section located next to the gas entrance was permeated by cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract During natural gas drilling in the EMS region in 1956, considerable numbers of longitudinal cracks and transverse fractures occurred in the connecting pieces of the bore rods. The connectors were screwed onto the rods by means of a fine thread and tightly joined with it by shrinkage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A high-density polyethylene (HDPE) natural gas distribution pipe (Grade PE 3306) failed by slow, stable crack growth while in residential service. The leak occurred at a location where a squeeze clamp had been used to close the pipe during maintenance. Failure analysis showed...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Low-carbon steel tee fitting in a line leading to a natural-gas dryer that failed from hydrogen sulfide corrosion. (a) Arrangement of piping showing point of leakage in the tee fitting. (b) Inner surface of the tee fitting showing corrosion deposit and area of complete penetration More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 1 Rupture site of a natural gas transmission line with multiple scattered steel pipe fragments (several outside the image) More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 3 Low-carbon steel tee fitting in a line leading to a natural-gas dryer that failed from hydrogen sulfide corrosion. (a) Arrangement of piping showing point of leakage in the tee fitting. (b) Inner surface of the tee fitting showing corrosion deposit and area of complete penetration More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract Wet natural gas was dried by being passed through a carbon steel vessel that contained a molecular-sieve drying agent. The drying agent became saturated after several hours in service and was regenerated by a gas that was heated to 290 to 345 deg C in a salt-bath heat exchanger...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract A natural gas pipeline explosion and subsequent fire significantly altered the pipeline steel microstructure, obscuring in part the primary cause of failure, namely, coating breakdown at a local hard spot in the steel. Chemical analysis was made on pieces cut from the portion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001799
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and ( b ) transverse cracks Abstract A high-speed pinion gear shaft, part of a system that compresses natural gas, was analyzed to determine why it failed. An abnormal wear pattern was observed on the shaft surface beneath the inner race of the support bearings. Material from the shaft had...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., etc Mercury as an impurity in natural gas Molten metal from fires, especially Zn from galvanized steel dripping on stainless steel Zn-based paint splashes onto hot equipment Lubricants containing metals such as Pb Pick-up from contaminated grinding wheels Cu from electrical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Inhibited admiralty brass (UNS C44300) condenser tubes used in a natural-gas-fired cogeneration plant failed during testing. Two samples, one from a leaking tube and the other from an on leaking tube, were examined. Chemical analyses were conducted on the tubes and corrosion deposits...
Image
Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 7 Macroscopic view of ruptured 5083-0 Al–Mg alloy inlet nozzle to a heat-exchanger in a natural-gas plant. Extensive secondary cracking and delaminations occurred within the area outlined in yellow More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and oxidation Background A 76 mm (3 in.) diam stainless steel tube that was used as a heat shield and water nozzle support in a hydrogen gas plant quench pot failed in a brittle manner. Applications Natural gas and steam are reacted at high temperatures of 870 to 925 °C (1600 to 1700 °F...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... removed from the furnace, visually inspected, and rotated 120° every three weeks to ensure that no single location was overheated for a prolonged period of time. The pots were fired by four natural-gas burners, which were mounted tangentially, with two burners located approximately one-third...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... presented. degradation mechanisms failure analysis hydrogen cracking pipeline flaws steel transmission pipelines HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, such as liquid petroleum products and natural gas, are typically transported via truck, rail, sea, and/or pipeline. Of these different transportation modes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... 1. Institute of Oil & Gas Production Technology, Oil and Natural gas Corporation Ltd. : Technical Manual for Production Operations (Internal Company Document) , pp. 279 – 285 . Institute of Oil & Gas Production Technology , Oil and Natural gas Corporation Ltd. , Panvel, Navi-Mumbai...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... temperature was estimated to be 760 to 815 °C (1400 to 1500 °F). The gas turbine was fueled with natural gas. Both the fuel and the inlet air were filtered. The nozzle were made of X-40, a cobalt-base alloy, and aluminide coated. Specimen Selection Three nozzle segments were submitted for failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001366
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... UNS A97075 Fatigue fracture Background An AMS 4126 (7075-T6) aluminum alloy impeller from a radial inflow turbine fractured during commissioning. Applications The turbine is used to derive power at a natural gas letdown station. A finite-element model of the impeller is shown in Fig...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... N06601 Intergranular fracture Steam reforming of natural gas is considered the most economic process for industrial hydrogen production. By this process, a mixture of methane and steam forms hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide while flowing through a catalyst bed. Steam reforming...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of exhaust gases from a combustion turbine (CT). The steam produced in the HRSG is sent either to a steam turbine (ST) to produce electricity and/or to be used in another process. Natural gas is normally used for fuel, although some CTs are fired with oil or are designed for both natural gas and oil fuels...