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Mixed-mode fracture

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to full-power operation and ensured a low probability of a similar occurrence for all CANDU reactors. Fracture mechanics Laminations Nuclear reactor components Pressure tubes Zr-2.5Nb UNS R60901 Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Mixed-mode fracture Metalworking-related failures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... G11440 Mixed-mode fracture A steel lifting eye that had fractured during service is shown in Fig. 1 . No additional service-related information was provided. The eye was reportedly manufactured from a grade 1144 steel and should exhibit a minimum tensile strength of 689 MPa (100 ksi). Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0089663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... propagation Precipitates Steam turbines ASTM A356 grade 6 UNS J12073 Casting-related failures Mixed-mode fracture When a crack developed in a cast steel steam-turbine casing, a small section of the casing was removed by torch cutting to examine the crack completely and to determine its origin. The...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001479
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., the material being drawn out to a feather edge at the time of rupture. Other ruptures in the same and other tubes were of a more brittle type, this being associated with penetration of material by molten copper derived from scale. Boiler tubes Copper Scale (corrosion) Steel tube Mixed-mode...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of deleterious intermetallic compounds within interdendritic regions. Macrohardness testing produced hardness values which are noticeably higher than standard hardness values for 712.0. The primary fracture surfaces indicate evidence of mixed-mode fracture, via intergranular cracking, cleaved...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... macroscopically ductile when the fracture surfaces are oriented at an angle of approximately 45° to the maximum normal stress. A fracture surface displaying both types of planes can be described as a mixed-mode fracture. Fig. 14 Schematic of variation in fracture toughness and macroscale features of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001128
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... . Figure 4 shows the fracture mode characteristic of a crack growth region along the fusion line. Dimpled fracture mixed with cavities was observed. The fracture morphology was found to be similar to that associated with laboratory creep crack growth testing on composite specimens ( Fig. 3 ). Moreover...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of maximum bending stress and around the outside of the fracture where the interface was in contact with the environment, the fracture mode of the specimens tested in water vapor was often uranium/silver separation. Figures 5 and 6 show examples of two specimens exhibiting this mixed failure mode...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... microscale, there is evidence of plastic deformation and failure by microvoid coalescence (MVC) ductile tearing. However, exceptions to this fracture progression mode have been reported. One is formation of a specimen-scale shear band (sometimes associated with void sheet formation at the microscale). One...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Cracks were discovered in the cast 17-4 PH stainless steel outboard leading edge flap support of an aircraft wing during overhaul inspection. Failure analysis focused on an apparently intergranular area of fracture surface. It was determined that the original mode of crack growth was...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... calculate maximum load capability (e.g., multiaxial yield criteria). One failure mode theory is the Rankine (or maximum normal stress) criterion, where the maximum principal stress is used. The other is the Tresca theory based on the maximum shear stress. The Rankine criterion holds that inelastic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-128 Grade B. As a result of the explosive failure of the tank car, fragments were ejected from the central region of the car between the support trucks from ground zero to a maximum of approximately 195 m (640 ft). The mode of failure was a brittle fracture originating at a preexisting lamination and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., because the adjacent crack profile revealed an abrupt reversion to a predominantly brittle, quasicleavage mode of microscopic cracking. Examination at several locations along the fracture path showed that a brittle mode of cracking prevailed throughout the flange fracture. In all the areas investigated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... study was deferred until these residues had been identified and removed. After ultrasonic cleaning, the fractured surfaces were examined (as cleaned and uncoated) in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at magnifications up to 10,000×. Two principal fracture modes were evident on the surfaces of each...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... flat (tensile mode) fatigue crack propagation to growth on a slant plane (shear mode). Propagation on a slant plane can occur in relatively thin, tough materials at high growth rates. Source: Ref 14 Fig. 13 Aluminum alloy fracture mechanics test specimen, 6.3 mm (0.25 in.) thick. Fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... general aspects of fracture modes and mechanisms. The article briefly reviews some mechanistic aspects of ductile and brittle crack propagation, including discussion on mixed-mode cracking. Factors associated with overload failures are discussed, and, where appropriate, preventive steps for reducing the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Subsurface cracks were found to be zigzag and discontinuous as well as intergranular in nature. A mixed mode of fracture involving ductile and brittle flat facets was observed. Micropores and rod-shaped manganese sulfide inclusions were also noted. The material had a hydrogen content of 22 ppm, and cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... caused by stress-corrosion cracking in stainless steel. In many instances, the fracture consists of both ductile and brittle regions. An example of such a mixed-mode fracture, consisting of ductile tearing and brittle cleavage, is shown in Fig. 12 . This example is a good illustration of the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... near the shank center. The crack originated intergranularly at the shank surface. It progressed slowly inward by this intergranular mode until the remaining cross section could no longer support the tensile load on the bolt, and sudden transgranular fracture occurred. The fracture mode of the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... characterstics in the area shown in Fig. 5 , composed of cleavage with river patterns. 4000×. Surprisingly, when the rough central area of the axle fracture was examined, a mixed mode of fracture—both brittle cleavage facets and ductile dimple rupture—was found ( Fig. 7 ). Fig. 7 SEM micrograph of...