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Mild steel (alloy steel, general)

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... contribute directly to the formation of calcium carbonate, a critical factor in the buildup of scale and pitting corrosion on heat exchanger tubes. heat exchanger tubes pitting corrosion scale formation IA/PA mild steel scale deposits chemical analysis calcium concentration Mild steel (alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... on the operating parameters (i.e., nominal contact pressure, p , and sliding velocity, v , see Table 4 ). In general, tribo-oxidative wear occurs at relatively low values of the operating parameters, and it is mild. On the contrary, adhesive wear occurs at high values of the operating parameters...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Electricity Generating Board , Oct 1987 104. Pendlebury R.E. , “Unlubricated Fretting Wear of Mild Steel Surfaces in Air at Room Temperature,” Report TPRD/B/0674/N85, AGR/CIF/TWG/P(85)164, Central Electricity Generating Board , June 1985 105. Beard J. , The Rational Selection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... Fig. 4 A spherical nonmetallic inclusion in apparently a mild steel particle in the 1979 deposit. Spherical inclusions like this are found in a particle after solidification from liquid. Fig. 5 A metal particle in the 1977 deposit. The steel appears to be an alloy steel and the shape...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... flow rate may have increased the rate of general corrosion and eventually led to tube failure. Stainless steel is typically much more resistant to cavitation erosion than mild steels, providing another reason for specifying its use for the heat exchanger tubes. The heat exchanger tank and upper...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...° for the austenitic stainless steel (wetting) at 1100 °C (2010 °F). A series of reports has been published regarding the embrittlement of iron-base alloys by copper during welding ( Ref 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 ). In a study of HY-80 steel welded with or without copper-nickel filter metal ( Ref 38 ), infiltration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... versus fretting cycles for mild steel under gross slip 90 μm displacement amplitude in both dry air and nitrogen atmosphere. Adapted from Ref 74 Fig. 21 (a) Evolution of wear rate of a flat-on-flat low-alloyed steel contact as a function of the mean contact pressure for gross slip fretting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... is about 875° for equilibrium conditions. Below this temperature, the lower the temperature, the higher will be the driving force for the reaction to go to the right, and it should be higher at room temperature than at boiler temperatures. But a mild steel tube, periodically refilled with HCl plus a trace...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are lines of constant normalized wear rate. Pin-on-disk configuration. Source: Ref 8 . Fig. 3 Examples of mild and severe wear morphology. (a) A lubricated sliding wear scar on steel in the mild wear regime. (b) The appearance of the same type of scar in the severe wear regime Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001724
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... bells differed from the characteristic mild steel brittle fractures was that they were inter-crystalline and not transcrystalline or cleavage. This may be because the end bells were of austenitic steel in which fracture normally is intercrystalline [4] , whereas in mild steel fracture is normally...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... to the latter and also bending of the other anchorage plate. The anchorage plates were 23 x 9 in. and had been flame-cut from mild steel plate. Collars were fillet-welded on each side at both ends to provide extra bearing area for the pins. Holes had then been flame-cut slightly under size and bored to final...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001372
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... caused by hydrogen damage; it is often difficult to distinguish between the two mechanisms. The environments that cause failure are not specific. Even an environment as mild as fresh water at room temperature may cause failure in especially susceptible alloys ( Ref 5 ). The coupling failed after 4300...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... The general microstructure was that of a low-alloy ultrahigh-strength steel, consisting of a fine-grained tempered martensite with few inclusions. Slight banding ( Fig. 8 ) of the structure was observed, consistent with mild alloy segregation. The plating microstructure was typical of hard chromium plating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., and cleanliness of the operating environment is needed to reduce the probability of abrasive wear particles being present. (If the cause was abrasion, an analysis of the wear debris should show the presence of the abrading material.) Figure 22 shows the severe adhesive wear of a mild steel gear. Adhesive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract Graphitization, the formation of graphite nodules in carbon and low alloy steels, contributes to many failures in high-temperature environments. Three such failures in power-generating systems were analyzed to demonstrate the unpredictable nature of this failure mechanism...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001306
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., having travelled approximately 20,000 total miles. The wheel studs were specified to be Grade 8.1 under SAE Standard J429, “Mechanical and Material Requirements for Externally Threaded Fasteners.” Medium-carbon alloy steels in general and alloy 1541 in particular meet the requirements...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001705
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., then flushed with water and a mild basic solution, [ 1 ]. During subsequent hydrostatic pressure testing the tubes failed, first by a blowout in one coil, which was then capped off, and next with multiple pinhole leaks. It was concluded that these failures were attributable to intergranular attack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to galling; they generally cause the least damage to steel shafts when operated with inadequate lubrication or with contaminants but fatigue quickly. Lead alloys also corrode readily. Tin-base Babbitt is more corrosion resistant than lead-base Babbitt and is easier to bond to a steel backing. Babbitts...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... a device that measures torque during assembly of the blade to the propeller boss. The hole contained a close-fitting mild steel pin and a screwed end closure. Two views of the fracture are shown in Fig. 2 . There was no evidence of corrosion products or discoloration anywhere in the bolt material itself...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... It is not unusual to find that the specification and ordering of material has been done in a loose and unspecific manner. Other examples are the specification of “carbon steel” or “mild steel,” which allows for wide ranges of materials to be used. A second reason for the need to determine exactly what...