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Microstructural analysis

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Stage 2 (where corrosion was low) and Stage 3 (severe corrosion) were taken and subjected to visual inspection, SEM, x-ray diffraction, microhardness measurement, and chemical and microstructural analysis. It was determined that extended non-operation of the plant resulted in the settlement of corrosive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... outer regions, accelerating the formation and coalescence of microcracks; leading to the premature failure of the tube. This case history was adapted from: Caceres P.G. , Habib K. , Failure Analysis of a Steam Reformer Tube , Microstructural Science , Vol 23 , Advances and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... taken after light etching was intended to remove some of the corrosion product from within the crack for EDX analysis in the scanning electron microscope. Heavier etching was necessary to reveal the microstructure. Both sets of replicas were coated with vacuum-deposited carbon, and in the case of the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... surface of the crack which has been forced open. 2× Fig. 4 Fracture-surface at fractured end of blade stump. 2× Analysis confirmed that the blades consisted of a steel containing 0.2% C and 13% Cr as is customarily employed for such blades. For the microstructure examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... formation of hard spots. The mode of crack propagation was established by microstructural examination to be transgranular cleavage. It was concluded that failure of the pressure vessel stemmed from the formation of transverse fabrication cracks in the HAZ fostered by the presence of hard spots. It was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., indicative of pre-existing cracks, were revealed by examination of the fracture surface at the drain grooves arc gouged at the nozzle sites. A thin layer of material with a dendritic structure was observed at the groove surface. The dendritic layer was revealed by qualitative microprobe analysis to contain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... exhibited no effects of corrosion, areas that were pitted, and areas containing nodules. The tubing contained several nodules and pits, but all were isolated from each other. A cross section through an unaffected area of the tube showed no corrosion on the inner surface and an undamaged microstructure. Most...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... examination of the blade material showed this to be a ferritic stainless steel of the type commonly used for turbine blades, the microstructure being illustrated in Fig. 5 . A number of non-metallic inclusions were present which had been drawn into threads in rolling; these appeared to consist largely of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... metallographic sections of the wires revealed highly deformed ferrite and pearlite, the normal and expected microstructure for cold-drawn wire ( Fig. 4 ). However, the longitudinal sections through the fatigue cracks exhibited a white-etching microstructural phase at the origins ( Fig. 5 ). Fig. 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract A pipe in the lateral wall of a boiler powering an aircraft carrier flat-top boat failed during a test at sea. The pipe was made from ASTM 192 steel, an adequate material for the application. Microstructural analysis along with equipment operating records provided valuable insight into...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract A group of control valves that regulate production in a field of sour gas wellheads performed satisfactorily for three years before pits and cracks were detected during an inspection. One of the valves was examined using chemical and microstructural analysis to determine the cause of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... investigation that included fractographic and microstructural analysis, hardness testing, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and finite-element analysis. The fracture was shown to be brittle in nature and covered with oxide flakes, but no other flaws relevant to the failure were observed. The...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., whereas the opposite side exhibited a planar-type fracture. Sections were removed from the eroded area and from the opposite lip for microscopic studies and chemical analysis. The eroded edges exhibited river bed ditching, indicative of thermal fatigue. Microstructural analysis showed massive carbide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A sledge hammer chipped during use. The chip struck a by stander in the eye, leading to its loss. The hammerhead surface was examined visually, nondestructively (magnetic particle method), and stereo microscopically, and a microstructural analysis of a cross section of the head was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001106
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Three radiant heating element tubes from an aluminum holding furnace failed after a few months of service. One side of each of the tubes had disintegrated, leaving large holes and thinned cross sections. Microstructural analysis showed that the surface of the tube had been oxidized...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract The failure of a 45 Mg (50 ton) rail crane bolster was investigated. Spectrochemical analysis indicated that the material was a 0.25C-1.24Mn-0.62Cr-0.24Mo cast steel. SEM examination revealed the presence of fatigue, as well as intergranular and ductile fractures. Microstructural...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001842
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract A felt guide roll fractured in-service on a paper manufacturing machine, damaging the belt as well as multiple dryer rolls, nearby felt guide rolls, and the frame of the machine. The investigation included visual and stereoscopic examination, chemical and microstructural analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... surfaces, protected by an anti-carburizing coating, stay unchanged. Based on extensive testing, including metallographic examination, microstructural analysis, microhardness testing, and spectroscopy, the oil hole was not protected as required, evidenced by the presence of a case layer. This oversight...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... eye. Macrophotography showed that the attack was more severe at one edge of each pad, resulting in deeper grooving and a buildup of deposits, mostly silver sulfides. Microstructural analysis of a cross section indicated that the interface between the silver overlay and the substrate (beryllium copper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Metallographic examination is one of the most important procedures used by metallurgists in failure analysis. Typically, the light microscope (LM) is used to assess the nature of the material microstructure and its influence on the failure mechanism. Microstructural examination can be...