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Metalworking-related failures

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... what expectations existed among various parties is often part of the analysis. Product safety continues to improve, but expectations are also heightened. In the general sense of the word, a failure is defined as an undesirable event or condition. For purposes of discussion related to failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article aims to identify and illustrate the types of overload failures, which are categorized as failures due to insufficient material strength and underdesign, failures due to stress concentration and material defects, and failures due to material alteration. It describes the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048068
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... measure, the chain-sling hook was replaced with one made of normalized, fully killed, finegrain 1020 steel. Acicular structure Cranes Normalizing (heat treatment) 1015 UNS G10150 Metalworking-related failures Fatigue fracture A hook on a two-leg chain broke while lifting a 4990-kg (11,000...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048068
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... measure, the chain-sling hook was replaced with one made of normalized, fully killed, finegrain 1020 steel. Acicular structure Cranes Normalizing (heat treatment) 1015 UNS G10150 Metalworking-related failures Fatigue fracture A hook on a two-leg chain broke while lifting a 4990-kg (11,000...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... blades Nickel-base superalloy Fatigue fracture Metalworking-related failures This case history builds on the cracked gas turbine blades shown in Fig. 1 , 2 , 3 . Cracking was found to initiate from a mechanism of LCF. Low-cycle fatigue is induced during thermal loading cycles in gas turbines...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to full-power operation and ensured a low probability of a similar occurrence for all CANDU reactors. Fracture mechanics Laminations Nuclear reactor components Pressure tubes Zr-2.5Nb UNS R60901 Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Mixed-mode fracture Metalworking-related failures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Engineering component and structure failures manifest through many mechanisms but are most often associated with fracture in one or more forms. This article introduces the subject of fractography and aspects of how it is used in failure analysis. The basic types of fracture processes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... example, modified AMS 2301. Quenching cracks Seamless tubes 4140 UNS G41400 Metalworking-related failures Heat treating-related failures Hydraulic cylinder housings were being fabricated from 4140 grade seamless steel tubing. During production, magnetic-particle inspection indicated the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...-discharge-machined surface where the resulting rehardened layer had not been removed. This rehardened layer had cracked, providing a source for fatigue initiation. Electrical discharge machining H13 UNS T20813 Fatigue fracture Metalworking-related failures A broken segment from a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... segregation was suspected to be the use of improperly made master alloys. Use of improved melting techniques and proper master alloys was recommended. Fracturing Master alloys Segregations L77 Al-4Cu Metalworking-related failures During the preproduction stages of forging, an...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... after swaging to reduce or eliminate strain hardening of the metal. Boiler tubes Cold working (swaging) Strain hardening Sulfur 304 grade TP Metalworking-related failures Stress-corrosion cracking Metallographic and fractographic analysis showed the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... stereoscopic microscope and/or a borescope. Aircraft components Airplanes Bearing steel Control valves Electric discharge machining Engine components Low-cycle fatigue 52000 Fatigue fracture Metalworking-related failures Brittle fracture A steel relay valve guide component...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... minimum tolerable defect size was also recommended. Aircraft components Commercial planes Lubrication systems Springs (elastic) Wire 321 UNS S32100 Metalworking-related failures Fatigue fracture Two stainless steel springs in oil ring lip seals failed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... G41350 Metalworking-related failures Fatigue fracture Several steering arms in service less than three years fractured during a dry park turn or slow speed turn when a high load was applied from hydraulically assisted power steering Complete fracture of the steering...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... cleaning Storage tanks 1006 UNS G10060 Uniform corrosion Metalworking-related failures After defining the cause of failure by laboratory analysis, most often corrective measures can be established. However, additional laboratory tests are sometimes needed, first to recreate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... properties 4140 UNS G41400 Metalworking-related failures Intergranular fracture The two kingpins that ailed in service had fractured completely across the shoulder between the flange and spool regions ( Fig. 1 ). The failure surfaces exhibited an oxidized and soiled dark...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... compression, bending, torsion). Finally, the factors influencing the appearance of a fracture surface and various imperfections or stress raisers are described, followed by a root-cause failure analysis case history to illustrate some of these fractography concepts. brittle fracture crack nucleation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001262
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... the real damage was done during the heat-up forging (drop-forging) and could not be removed during heat-treatment. Chains Cracking (fracturing) Drop forgings Overheating 30CrMoV 9 Metalworking-related failures A chain link which was part of the hoisting mechanism of a drop hammer broke...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... internal plug. The diam of this portion of the tube was reduced by local collapse and folding of the section rather than by longitudinal extension of the tube itself. Defects Optical microscopy Superheaters Tubemaking Steel tube Metalworking-related failures Corrosion fatigue A tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... forgings and from material flow during trimming and/or material flow during forging. Closed-die forging Cracking (fracturing) Die forgings Alloy steel Carbon steel Metalworking-related failures Intergranular fracture Cracks occasionally formed on the parting lines of medium...