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Metal baths

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001705
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract The working fluid of a hypersonic wind tunnel is freon 14 heated in molten-metal-bath heat exchangers. The coils of the heaters have failed several times from various causes. They have been replaced each time with a stainless steel deemed more appropriate, but they continue to fail...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... in the metal bath that is released during solidification. This defect reduces the cross sectional area of the component. Shrinkage typically occurs in the last areas to solidify or areas in contact with gates. This defect reduces the cross sectional area of the component to a greater extent than porosity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Two new chrome-plated CDA 377 brass valves intended for inert gas service failed on initial installation. After a pickling operation to clean the metal, the outer surfaces of the valves had been flashed with copper and then plated with nickel and chromium for aesthetic purposes. One...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0046057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... micrographic examination showed a microstructure of tempered martensite with low inclusion content as well as a pit or burned spot on the outer area of the ring. The defect was approximately 0.18 mm (0.007 in.) deep and 0.5 mm (0.020 in.) in diam and had a hardness of 58 to 60 HRC. The base metal adjacent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... metals Strip mills 309 UNS S30900 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Intergranular corrosion Severe reduction of wall thickness was encountered at the liquid line of a lead-bath pan ( Fig. 1 ) that was used in a continuous strip or wire oil-tempering unit. Replacement of the pan...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... in Industrieluft, Metall ( 1971 ) 985 / 992 2. Bablik H. , Ungeeigneter Eisenuntergrund für das Feuerverzinken, Metalloberfläche ( 1950 ) A49 / A53 ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the deposit sample determined that magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), silicon carbide (SiC), and rutile (TiO 2 ) were present. The SiC and TiO 2 were presumably from the catalyst and catalyst carrier material. Several peaks in the XRD spectrum could not be identified. No evidence of metallic iron was found...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... be raised 56 °C (100 °F) in the future to account for the expected localized compositional variation. Selected Reference Selected Reference • Becker W.T. and McGarry D. , Mechanisms and Appearances of Ductile and Brittle Fracture in Metals , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... Chemical analysis of the cracked metal showed a slightly higher level of carbon than in the component that did not crack. X-ray diffraction studies of material from the fractured dome showed a very low level of retained austenite, and chemical analysis showed a slightly higher content of carbon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... a hexagonal crystal habit. Entrained air is another type of gas porosity, but it is generally less well known. Entrained air porosity occurs during the molten metal injection process and is due to excessive turbulence. Entrained air porosity tends to be irregular in shape. In Fig. 4 , note...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001106
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... by bending sheet and welding the seams. Furnace temperatures range from 900 to 700 °C (1650 to 1290 °F), with the metal being cast at 710 °C (1310 °F). Some scrap remelting and fluxing operations are also carried out. The heaters are linked to thermocouples placed in the molten aluminum bath...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... The failure would not have occurred if annealed pipe had been used. Selected Reference Selected Reference • Becker W.T. and McGarry D. , Mechanisms and Appearances of Ductile and Brittle Fracture in Metals , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or minimizes attack on the metal and the consequent generation of nascent hydrogen. Salt baths operated at approximately 210 °C (410 °F) can be used for descaling titanium alloys, superalloys, and refractory metals to avoid the possibility of hydrogen charging associated with pickling. Plating solutions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to 390 °F) hastens the removal of hydrogen. Also, the addition of suitable inhibitors to the pickling solution eliminates or minimizes attack on the metal and the consequent generation of nascent hydrogen. Salt baths operated at approximately 210 °C (410 °F) can be used for descaling titanium alloys...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...-corrosion cracking (SCC), liquid metal embrittlement (LME), and hydrogen embrittlement. Stress-corrosion cracking failures are caused by the combined action of the environment and stress. Chlorides, a common cause of SCC in materials and a common substance in the wellbore, usually result...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... (aircrafts) 7075 UNS A97075 Intergranular corrosion New aircraft wing panels extruded from 7075-T6 aluminum were reported to be discolored, exhibiting an unusual pattern of circular black interrupted lines ( Fig. 1a ). The black marks were coherent with the metal and could not be removed by scouring...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... being tested generally failed within the first 4 h. Metallurgical Examination Metallurgical examination showed that the microstructure of the steel base metal was tempered martensite, supposedly heat treated to an ultimate tensile strength range of 1240 to 1380 MPa (180 to 200 ksi). Testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., Failure Analysis and Prevention , vol. 11 , Metals Handbook , pp. 15 – 46 . American Society for Metals ( 1986 ) 6. Hutchings F.R. , Unterweiser P.M. : Service related failures, Failure Analysis—The British Engine Technical Reports , pp. 307 – 386 . American Society for Metals...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... A. , Gorum A. E. , and Greenspan J. , eds., Brook Hill , 1976 . 2. Eckelmeyer K. H. and Zanner F. J. , “The Effect of Aging on the Mechanical Behaviors of U-0.75 wt. % Ti and U-2.0 wt. % Mo,” J. of Metals , Vol. 62 , No. 1 , p. 37 , October 1976 . 10.1016/0022-3115(76...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... 625 , 30 – 36 ( 2012 ) 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.625.30 2. Ryder D.A. , General Practice in Failure Analysis , vol. 11 , Failure Analysis and Prevention ( American Society for Metals , ASM Handbook , 1986 ), pp. 15 – 46 3. Hutchings F.R. , Unterweiser P.M...