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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... References 1. Vander Voort G.V. , Embrittlement of Steels , Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys , Vol 1 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1990 , 689 – 736 2. Stoloff N.S. , Liquid Metal Embrittlement in Surfaces and Interfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Metal-induced embrittlement is a phenomenon in which the ductility or the fracture stress of a solid metal is reduced by surface contact with another metal in either the liquid or solid form. This article summarizes some of the characteristics of liquid-metal- and solid-metal-induced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A crumpled piece of sheet metal had two cracks in a T-junction shape. The relative locations of shear lips in the cracks allowed deduction of which crack happened first, and which direction the cracks propagated. Cracking (fracturing) Sheet metal Sheet metal Ductile fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... (region C). The external repair weld (region D) had only partial fusion with the earlier bead. The arrow shows a film of oxide slag at the interface. Etched with 2% chromic acid plus HCl. 10x Investigation Microscopic examination of the fracture site revealed unfused weld metal surfaces...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...). The crack was opened by fracturing the vane. The crack surface displayed fatigue beach marks emanating from the seam-weld interface. Both the leading-edge and trailing-edge seam welds exhibited weld-metal expulsions up to 3.6 mm (0.14 in.) in length. Metallographic examination confirmed that metal expulsion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Fig. 1 Waspaloy (AMS 5586) spray-manifold tube that failed by fatigue fracture because of embrittlement by penetration of molten braze metal. (a) Macrograph showing fracture at the edge of the brazed joint between the tube and the sleeve. 4×. (b) Fractograph showing granular, discolored region...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... cm. All castings produced during a trial showed laking defects, the number and position varying from casting to casting. It was found that formation of metal waves and lakes depended primarily on the design of the gate and runner system and operating conditions. High flow efficiencies, with adequate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... is an important component of failure analysis. In the case of a liquid metal embrittlement (LME) failure it is usually conclusive if a third phase constituent can be formed inside of the cracks after failure. In the case where it is necessary to characterize the third phase material, one can use various x-ray...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... discoloration on the metal, avoiding the formation of black scale. It was also recommended that the scale and discoloration of the welds at the outlet and HAZs be removed by abrasive blast cleaning and that the interior of the completed tanks be passivated, using either 22% HNO 3 at 60 °C (140 °F) or 50% HNO 3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... diameter of 5 in. failed by fatigue cracking just below the gudgeon-pin boss. Failure took place in line with the lower edge of a deposit of weld metal. The fracture surface was smooth, conchoidal, and characteristic of that resulting from fatigue. The origin of the major crack was associated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... a hardness of 170 VDP, which is equivalent to a tensile strength of approximately 37 tons per sq. in.; the weld metal showed a hardness of 200, which is not abnormal under the circumstances, but the hardened zone adjacent to the weld proved to be 400, equivalent to a tensile strength of approximately 86 tons...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001435
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... Fig. 1 View showing location of fracture, grooving and weld deposit. × 1 1 4 Fig. 2 Surface of fracture. × 1 1 4 Fig. 3 Keyway filled with weld metal. × 1 1 4 Abstract Abstract Shaft fracture of a 10 hp squirrel cage motor took place...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Abstract Abstract In the course of a general overhaul, the crankpins and main journals (3 in. diam) of the crankshaft of a four-cylinder oil engine were built up by metal spraying. Four weeks later, the shaft broke through the pin remote from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... were revealed at the edges of the weld metal. It was revealed by chemical analysis of this band that a stainless steel filler metal had been used which produced mixed composition at the weld boundaries. The plating material was revealed to be nickel by chemical analysis. It was concluded that clapper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract In a HyL III heat exchanger's radiant pipes, metal dusting reduced the pipe thickness from 8.5 to 3 mm in just nine months, leaving craters on the inner surface. The pipes are fabricated from HK 40 alloy. The heated gas (400 to 800 deg C) consisted of CO, CO2, and H2, with a 4:1 CO/CO2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Replacement of the contaminated manifold was recommended along with discontinued use of mercury manometers, the original source of mercury contamination. Selected Reference Selected Reference • Warke W.R. , Liquid Metal and Solid Metal Induced Embrittlement , Failure Analysis and Prevention...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Fig. 3 Schematic showing the silver-refractory metal contacts Fig. 1 Typical microstructure of a 50Ag–50Mo contact. The light areas are silver, the dark areas molybdenum. 380× Fig. 2 Typical microstructure of a 27Ag–73W contact. The light areas are silver, the dark areas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... conducted on sections from one of the studs and revealed that the coating on the fracture surface was cadmium. The fracture had multiple origins, and secondary cracks also contained cadmium. The fracture topography was intergranular. The failures were attributed to liquid metal embrittlement caused...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A 150 mm (6 in.) diam, 1.6 mm (0.065 in.) thick alloy 800 1iner from an internal bypass line in a hydrogen reformer was removed from a waste heat boiler because of severe metal loss. Visual and metallographic examinations of the liner indicated severe metal wastage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract Several cases of embrittlement failure are analyzed, including liquid-metal embrittlement (LME) of an aluminum alloy pipe in a natural gas plant, solid metal-induced embrittlement (SMIE) of a brass valve in an aircraft engine oil cooler, LME of a cadmium-plated steel screw...