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Materials substitution

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... wire rope was substituted by the more abrasion resistant 6 x 19 rope. Carbon Chemical composition Cranes Martensite Specifications Tensile Strength Fe-0.73C Fatigue fracture The wire rope on a crane in a scrapyard broke after 2 weeks of service under normal loading conditions. Expected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001266
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... fracture. Metallographic examination of samples revealed an extremely large grain size and corroborated fatigue fracture. Chemical analysis indicated that the material conformed to the requirements for type 316L stainless steel. Substandard-size tensile bars machined from another prosthesis from the same...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) is the general term given to the material damage accumulation process that occurs with simultaneous changes in temperature and mechanical loading. TMF may couple cyclic inelastic deformation accumulation, temperature-assisted diffusion within the material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Corrosion is the deterioration of a material by a reaction of that material with its environment. The realization that corrosion control can be profitable has been acknowledged repeatedly by industry, typically following costly business interruptions. This article describes the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... typical types of damage experienced for metallic components. This article discusses the processes involved in visual or macroscopic examination of damaged material; the interpretation of fracture features, corrosion, and wear damage features; and the analysis of base material composition. It covers the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article aims to identify and illustrate the types of overload failures, which are categorized as failures due to insufficient material strength and underdesign, failures due to stress concentration and material defects, and failures due to material alteration. It describes the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... material substitutions or process changes during manufacture and the misuse, abuse, or occurrence of complex stress fields in service. A seemingly innocent substitution of material resulted in distortion of small volute springs made of cold-worked spring-tempered Inconel. Normally, the material was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001088
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A 25 mm (1 in.) diam carrier shaft failed suddenly during operation. The shaft failed near the toe of the 4.8 mm (316 in.) frame-to-shaft 60 deg and 120 deg submerged metal arc (SMA) tack welds after an unknown time in service. Material specifications called for the shaft to be made...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... materials failure analysts. This article focuses on the general methods and approaches from the perspective of a reconstruction analyst. It describes the elements of accident reconstruction, which have conceptual similarity with the principles for failure analysis of material incidents that are less complex...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Metallographic examination is one of the most important procedures used by metallurgists in failure analysis. Typically, the light microscope (LM) is used to assess the nature of the material microstructure and its influence on the failure mechanism. Microstructural examination can be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... characteristics of fatigue fractures followed by a discussion on the effects of loading and stress distribution, and material condition on the microstructure of the material. In addition, general prevention and characteristics of corrosion fatigue, contact fatigue, and thermal fatigue are also presented...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0006898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
...-nickel, solving the SCC problem. Cupronickel Electric fuses, Materials substitution Nickel brasses 59Cu-12Ni-29Zn Stress-corrosion cracking Several fuses, made of nickel silver (57 to 61% Cu, 11 to 13% Ni, bal Zn), exposed in central offices where the air contained industrial atmospheric...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... 1520 mg SO 4 ″ per liter. An investigation was to determine whether the bars consisted of the specified alloy; it was also to reveal the type and origin of the damage, Enquiries were also made if steel of type X 5 CrNiMo 18 10 was suitable for this application or what substitute material should be...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract The side supporting flange of the bottom platen of an 800 ton hydraulic press fractured after 9 x 10's cycles under a maximum load of 530 tons. The platen material specified in the design was cast steel 52. Metallographic examination of the fracture surface indicated that the platen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of factors that may have played a role in the failure. In the design of the system, the original material specified was ASTM A155 fusion-welded pipe that had been substituted with SA387, grade C, plate, rolled and welded with filler metal added. At the time of the design of the system, the allowable...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... fatigue cracks were originated and propagated, and finally formed the macroscopic fracture crossing the thickness of the outer ring. Cylindrical roller bearings with qualified chemical compositions of the matrix materials, especially for the outer ring, should be used to substitute the current...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... origin of the failure was a small surface crack in the inner pipe wall produced by the clamping. Fracture mechanics calculations confirmed that the suspected failure process would result in a failure time close to the actual time to failure. It was recommended that: materials be screened for...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... shutdowns and startups. Residual stresses, originating from in situ bend forming of the tube during assembly of the line, provided a driving force for crack growth, and the segregation of sulfur on grain boundaries made the material more susceptible to cracking. bent tube fracture hypochlorous acid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in the resistance values, resulting in circuit nonperformance at inappropriate times. The low termination strength was attributed to deficient chip design for the intended materials and manufacturing process and exacerbated by the presence of polymeric contamination at the termination interface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Corrosion is the electrochemical reaction of a material and its environment. This article addresses those forms of corrosion that contribute directly to the failure of metal parts or that render them susceptible to failure by some other mechanism. Various forms of corrosion covered are...