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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract A cooler of an ammonia synthesis plant was destroyed after three years of service due to the rupture of a distribution manifold. Synthesis gas under high pressure and at about 300 deg C, consisting of 10% NH3 and unconverted gas of 25% N2 and 75% H2 content, was water-cooled...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Waspaloy (AMS 5586) fabricated inner ring of a spray-manifold assembly failed transversely through the manifold tubing at the edge of the tube and support sleeve brazed joint. The assembly was brazed with AWS BAu-4 filler metal (AMS 4787). Fatigue beach marks propagating from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001738
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract During a planned shut-down in 1990 it appeared that the bottom manifold parts made of wrought Incoloy 800H had undergone diametrical expansion of up to 2% due to creep. Further, cracking at the outer diam was found. It was decided to replace these parts. Microscopical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract Stainless steel pipe (273-mm OD x 8-mm wall thickness) used in the fabrication of large manifolds developed crack-like decohesions during a routine inductive bending procedure. The imperfections, which were found near the outside diameter, were around 3 mm in length oriented...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... The mercury was accidentally introduced into the cylinders during a gas-blending operation through a contaminated blending manifold. Replacement of the contaminated manifold was recommended along with discontinued use of mercury manometers, the original source of mercury contamination. Brittle fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... The increase in the weld nitrogen level was a direct result of inadequate argon gas shielding of the molten weld puddle. Two areas of inadequate shielding were identified: improper gas flow rate for a 19 mm (0.75 in.) diam gas lens nozzle, and contamination of the manifold gas system. Recommendations included...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract The failure of a reformer tube furnace manifold has been examined using metallography. It has been shown that the cause of failure was thermal fatigue; the damage was characterized by the presence of voids produced by creep mechanisms operating during the high temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048747
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract A 455 mm diam x 8 mm thick wall carbon steel (ASTM A 53) discharge line for a circulating-water system at a cooling tower fractured in service; a manifold section cracked where a Y-shaped connection had been welded. Investigation (visual inspection and photographs) supported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... chamber. The gas leaves the reformer through the flue gas outlet nozzle. The feed gas flows through the inlet gas nozzle at the top of the reformer shell and is then distributed through a manifold system to the inlet hole at the top of each reformer tube. The characteristic layout of an HTCR tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001705
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of 3 8 inch AISI 316 stainless steel tubing (wall thickness 0.049″) connected to input and output manifolds, ( Figure 1 ). The coils are immersed in the molten lead bath at a temperature of 900–1000 °F. Fig. 1 Heater configuration A series of events has occurred over years...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0089526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... be seen during optical examination. Wall thickness at the thinnest section of failure measured 5.3 mm (0.210 in.). The specification minimum is 4.6 mm (0.180 in.). Fig. 1 Crack in a gray-iron cylinder head. (a) Crack on side of head next to manifold No. 3. (b) Another view of the same crack, which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... to 1022 °F) flows from an inlet manifold system in the top of the furnace through inlet pigtails at the tops of the reformer tubes. At the bottom, tubes are welded to an assembly consisting of a reducer joined to a pipe called the bottom pigtail. The bottom pigtails are welded to multiple collection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048733
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... design of the brine heater. A very high discontinuity stress existed at the longitudinal welds between the hot well and the heater shell. A lesser discontinuity stress existed at the longitudinal weld between the brine-heater shell and the steam manifold. The stress values were calculated for the heater...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... analysis indicated the presence of mercury on the fracture surface, and mercury was also detected using scanning Auger microprobe analysis. The mercury was accidentally introduced into the cylinders during a gas-blending operation through a contaminated blending manifold. Replacement of the contaminated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... wall temperatures to a value closer to the inlet gas temperature of about 590°C (1100°F). While this would have caused some local “hot spots” near the manifold at the top of the duct, there was little effect after expansion from the stack into the main duct where the velocity was reduced to normal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... on the fracture surface, and mercury was also detected using scanning Auger microprobe analysis. The mercury was accidentally introduced into the cylinders during a gas-blending operation through a contaminated blending manifold. Replacement of the contaminated manifold was recommended, along with discontinued...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... raisers. A 455-mm (18-in.) diam, 7.9-mm ( 5 16 -in.) wall carbon steel discharge line for a circulating-water system at a cooling tower fractured in service; a manifold section cracked where a Y-shaped connection had been welded. The steel pipe was made to ASTM A 53 specifications...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... of brackets riveted to it, these being located approximately 26 ft. apart, and it was normally kept filled with water to a height of approximately three-quarters of its diameter, incoming steam being fed into the water through a perforated distribution manifold. The steam flow from the vessel was taken via...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2