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Magnetite

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 Magnetite formation in bakers' oven tube More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 12 Massive magnetite scale on internal surface More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 21 Laminated structure of magnetite scale × 50 More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 (a) A magnetite coating on hot rolled sheet, with fresh rust breaking through; (b) Hot rolled surface, about 60% covered with fresh rust; (c) Hot rolled steel, with all the original magnetite lost. Rust is beginning to darken where arrowed, to form hematite. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract The phenomenon of on-load corrosion is directly associated with the production of magnetite on the water-side surface of boiler tubes. On-load corrosion may first be manifested by the sudden, violent rupture of a boiler tube, such failures being found to occur predominantly on the fire...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... electron microscopy, EDXA, and x-ray mapping were used to study the steel in the vicinity of this part of the fracture surface. It was found to be contaminated with copper. Debye-Scherrer x-ray diffraction patterns obtained from the scale showed that it consisted of magnetite and hematite. It was concluded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... on the crown of the top tubes and located in an area near the upward bend of the tube. The inside of all the tubes were covered with a loosely adherent, black, alkaline, powdery deposit comprised mainly of magnetite. The corroded areas, however, had relatively less deposit. The morphology of the corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001711
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... + log   t f ) ,   where   T = T ( ° F ) + 460. Besides, in seam cooled pipes, the internal magnetite scale thickness may also be used as a criterion for failure analysis. The equation for scale thickness is: (Eq 2) log   X = 0.00022 ( T + 460 ) ( 20...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 Severe oxidation of boiler tube to give uniform layer of crystalline magnetite More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... for (1) the cause of the rapid corrosion and (2) the cause of the embrittlement. Failure Analysis Cause of Corrosion The corrosion products on the water-sides of all tubes consisted largely of loose, poorly-adherent magnetite (as identified by x-ray diffraction) together with crystals...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... analyzed ( Fig. 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ). Most of the deposit contained primarily iron (areas 1 and 5 to 9), indicating that the majority of the material was iron oxide (magnetite). The darker-appearing material in Fig. 9 primarily contained either silicon (areas 3 and 10), indicating that it was SiC from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... diffraction analysis of the surface layers from both the inside and outside of the tube indicated that the major constituent was magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) with some hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ). The internal condition of the tube indicated that the water treatment was functioning properly. Mechanical Properties...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... caused the breakdown of the protective magnetite layer and subsequently caused the dissolution of boiler material and formation of nonprotective brownish red scabbing. The caustic corrosion of the tube led to the thinning and finally ruptures of the tube. The escaping steam eroded the outer surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Compounds in the deposits were identified using powder x-ray diffraction (XRD). The EDS results of the inner diameter deposit analysis are shown in Fig. 8 . The XRD results showed that the deposits consisted primarily of iron oxide/magnetite (Fe 3 O...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...) and powder x-ray diffraction (XRD). Fig. 4 presents EDS results for the bulk internal deposits from Sample 1. The EDS and XRD analysis results were similar for all four tube samples. XRD identified the iron oxide magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), metallic copper (Cu), the iron oxides hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) and wüstite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... exhibited a tenacious, black magnetite coating. Fig. 1 Fracture of a steel superheater tube. (a) The interior of the tube that fractured showing secondary cracks and a black contamination layer. (b) Microstructure of the tube showing triple-point cracks and intrusive oxidation damage. The creep...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... in the formation of a layer of magnetite on the tube bore. The oxide grows to become two-layered; the steam-side layer is porous and the metal-side layer is generally dense. There is, of course, some chromium in the oxide as there is in the alloy steel, but the chromium is not distributed uniformly within...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... examination had suffered localised damage on the cooling water side leading to serration of the edges and heavy pitting as shown in Fig. 1 . Beyond this heavily damaged zone, the external wall was coated with deposits shown by qualitative chemical analysis to consist principally of Fe 3 O 4 (magnetite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... scale (most likely magnetite) 1.5 mm (0.006 in.) to 0.2 mm (0.008 in.) thick. Fig. 3 The inner diameter surface of the superheater tube, at the failure. The arrow indicates the failure site. 0.68× Metallography A microstructural study of the failure and adjacent inner diameter fissures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... The scale on the internal surface of carbon and low-alloy steel tubes such as T11 and T22 steels consists of FeO (wustite), Fe 2 O 3 (hematite), and Fe 3 O 4 (magnetite). In the presence of moisture or water in the form of condensate, there can also be formation of the compound Fe(OH) 2 (ferrous...