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Liquid metal induced embrittlement

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 33 Liquid-metal-induced embrittlement and cracking evidence that occurred during torch brazing. 2% nital etch. 119× More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract Metal-induced embrittlement is a phenomenon in which the ductility or fracture stress of a solid metal is reduced by surface contact with another metal in either liquid or solid form. This article summarizes the characteristics of solid metal induced embrittlement (SMIE) and liquid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Metal-induced embrittlement is a phenomenon in which the ductility or the fracture stress of a solid metal is reduced by surface contact with another metal in either the liquid or solid form. This article summarizes some of the characteristics of liquid-metal- and solid-metal-induced...
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 16 Cadmium-plated 4140 steel nuts from a military jet engine that failed by liquid metal induced embrittlement. (a) Fragmented and cracked nuts. (b) Typical fracture surface. (c) Electron fractograph showing brittle intergranular failure More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the stainless steel in an area under residual tensile stress. The copper for the fixtures was replaced by aluminum. No further cracking was encountered. Gas tungsten arc welding Grain boundaries Heat affected zone Residual stress Tensile stress 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn Liquid metal induced embrittlement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001480
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Copper Overheating Scale (corrosion) Steel tube Liquid metal induced embrittlement One tube in a watertube boiler developed leakage from a perforation and the external surface was covered with a dark deposit indicative of local fusion. A section showed that perforation resulted from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001479
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Liquid metal induced embrittlement Several ruptures took place in the front wall tubes of a water tube boiler and samples taken from typical major and minor ruptures were received for examination, together with a sample cut from a sound tube for purposes of comparison. A selection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... treatment related failures Liquid metal induced embrittlement Background Four cadmium-plated studs failed unexpectedly in a nil-ductility manner. The studs were made of low-alloy steel heat treated to 27 to 32 HRC. They were in operation for only a few hours prior to failure. Applications...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of embrittlement failure are analyzed, including liquid-metal embrittlement (LME) of an aluminum alloy pipe in a natural gas plant, solid metal-induced embrittlement (SMIE) of a brass valve in an aircraft engine oil cooler, LME of a cadmium-plated steel screw from a crashed helicopter, and LME of a steel gear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001482
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Liquid metals Penetration Steel tube Liquid metal induced embrittlement Intergranular fracture This case involves penetration by molten copper in connection with the economiser of a large water-tube boiler. Shortly after this had been put into commission leakage occurred at the welds between...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001483
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... deg C (1981 deg F), molten metal came into contact with the bolt, into which it penetrated along the grain boundaries, culminating in rupture. Bolts Copper Liquid metals Overheating Penetration Steel bolt Liquid metal induced embrittlement Intergranular fracture The head portion only...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... (3000 °F). Before these developments (circa 1950), the upper limit of the brazing process did not exceed 1150 °C (2100 °F). Some examples of problems to consider in filler-metal selection are the liquid metal induced embrittlement tendency of titanium alloys and nickel-base alloys brazed with silver...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... absorption of hydrogen Stress-corrosion cracking (sometimes) Liquid metal induced embrittlement (LMIE), for example, mercury in brass, lithium in 304 stainless steel Solid metal induced embrittlement (SMIE) The following sections describe more detail of some typical embrittlement mechanisms...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... Liquid copper Locomotive axles ASTM A21 Liquid metal induced embrittlement Failures of locomotive axles have occurred for more than 100 years. These failures are common and often not properly examined with the relevant metallographic tools available. Failures of all types of locomotive axles have...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001484
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and circumferential tensile stresses on the side in contact with the adjacent diaphragm. In the presence of the molten copper-rich alloy, these stresses gave rise to severe hot cracking. Copper Liquid metals Steam turbines Fe-0.35C-3.42Ni Liquid metal induced embrittlement The fusing of the switch...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Hydrogen embrittlement by grain-boundary absorption of hydrogen Stress-corrosion cracking, can be intergranular or transgranular Liquid metal induced embrittlement, for example, mercury in brass, lithium in 304 stainless steel Solid metal induced embrittlement Low-melting-temperature elements...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... equipment that was in operation prior to the installation of the mercury-removal bed. Butt welds Chemical processing equipment Ethylene Hydrocarbons Mercury Repair welding 5083-O UNS A95083 Intergranular corrosion Liquid metal induced embrittlement Background A through-wall crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Intergranular fracture Mercury Rupturing Safety equipment C22000 UNS C22000 Liquid metal induced embrittlement Background Applications Commercial bronze rupture discs (C22000) are used in a safety device integral with valves used on flammable gas containing cylinders. C22000 composition limits...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... grain size of alloy L50 median life of a rolling-element bearing LCF low-cycle fatigue LCP liquid crystalline polymer LEFM linear-elastic fracture mechanics LME liquid metal embrittlement LMIE liquid metal induced embrittlement LMP Larson-Miller parameter LNG liquefied natural gas LOF lack of fusion LOP...