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Lead (metal), Impurities

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... included reducing the tube temperature, replacing the Schedule 40 100 deg bends with Schedule 80 pipe, and solution annealing the pipe after bending. Boiler tubes Brittle fracture Contaminants Creep (materials) Ductility Intergranular fracture Lead (metal), Impurities Mechanical properties...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048620
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... saturated with water vapor at a temperature of 90 °C (195 °F) for 10 days. If the metal was attacked during this test, it indicated that there were deficiencies in magnesium content or that the content of the impurities (lead, cadmium, and tin) were above 0.004%, 0.003%, and 0.002%, respectively...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... gradients or dissimilar metals in an assembly, is often an unexpected source of stresses that can lead to SCC. In heat exchangers, for example, thermal gradients can create strains having equivalent elastic stresses 10 to 20× greater than residual or applied stresses. If the environment on the cold side...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... L.E. , Analysis of Stress Corrosion Crack-Tip Surface Chemistries in 7075 Type Aluminum Alloys , Scr. Metall. , Vol 15 , 1981 , p 55 10.1016/0036-9748(81)90136-8 23. Briant C.L. et al. , Embrittlement of a 5% Nickel High Strength Steel by Impurities and Their Effects...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... circumstances. In some ductile materials, shear-band fractures may also show evidence of microvoid coalescence (MVC), typically associated with dimple rupture. In pure metals and alloys refined to remove all impurities (where there is no ready supply of sites for microvoids to nucleate), the material may fail...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-centered cubic metals, even at low plastic strain amplitudes, leads to IG cracks from the action of persistent slip bands against grain boundaries at the surface ( Ref 16 ). An example of IG fatigue in copper is also shown in Fig. 44 of the article “Fatigue Fracture Appearances” in this Volume...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... associated with dimple rupture. In pure metals and alloys refined to remove all impurities (where there is no ready supply of sites for microvoids to nucleate), the material can fail by adiabatic shear-band formation, resulting in a somewhat flat fracture surface devoid of dimples. Transgranular dimple...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Background Visual Examination of General Physical Features Testing Procedure and Results Discussion Conclusion and Recommendations Reference Reference 1. Shores D.A. and Luthra K.L. , Hot Corrosion of Metals and Alloys , Fundamentals of High Temperature Corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... as much as a 70% increase in flow stress of such alloys as 6061 ( Ref 6 ). The decrease in mobility of the metal in a die can lead to deformation heating, laps, seams, and cracks in the product. In high-production shops, rapid forming rates can lead to high residual stresses in the product, requiring...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090881
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to a very alkaline (caustic) environment. Environmental impurities consisting of sulfate, sulfide, sodium, lead, and copper were also detected. The levels of these impurities were not sufficient to indicate an acute introduction of these species into the steam generator secondary environment. However, crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... , pp. 185 – 95 . 10.1016/0025-5416(87)90552-0 17. Lewandowski J.J. , Kim Y.S. , and Holroyd N.J.H. : “Lead-Induced Solid-Metal Embrittlement of an Excess Silicon Al-Mg-Si Alloy at Temperatures of −4 °C to 80 °C,” Metall. Trans. A , 1992 , 23 , pp. 1679 – 89 . 10.1007...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... pollutants entering with the inlet air depend on the turbine location, but include sodium, sulfur, chlorine, and calcium. These impurities in the fuel and the air can lead to deposition of alkali metal sulfates on the blade or vane surfaces, resulting in hot corrosion attack [ 2 ]. The areas of the gas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... 266 , 345 – 348 ( 2009 ) 10.1016/j.wear.2008.05.010 16. Lathabai S. , Ottmüller M. , Fernandez I. : Solid particle erosion behaviour of thermal sprayed ceramic, metallic and polymer coatings . Sci. Technol. 221 , 93 – 108 ( 1998 ) 10.1016/S0043-1648(98)00267-1 17...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
.... , Mechanisms and Appearances of Ductile and Brittle Fracture in Metals , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2002 , p 587 – 626 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538 Manufacture of Rimming Steel Case “A” Case “B” Case “C” Summary: The designation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and Technology , Vol 6 -II, Alper A.M. , Ed., Academic, 1970 , p 117 – 146 5. Ericksson G. and Hack K. , Metall. Trans. B , 1990 , p 1013 6. Ericksson G. , Chem. Scr., 8 , 1975 , p 100 7. Lou V.L.K. and Heuer A.H. , High-Temperature Corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... environments to the protective barrier oxide film formed and strongly bonded to its surface. This film of aluminum oxide is relatively inert and tends to resist further oxidation. The film can be dissolved in the presence of some chemicals and this can lead to dissolution of the metal. When the film is damaged...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... If banding is severe, it can lead to discontinuities that cause premature failure. For example, Fig. 6 shows the fatigue fracture of a carburized and hardened steel roller. Banded alloy segregation in the metal used for the rollers resulted in heavy, banded retained austenite, particularly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... References 1. ASTM E8M-90a. standard test method for tension testing of metallic materials [metric] , Vol.03.01 ASTM , 2001 . 2. ASM handbook . Failure analysis and prevention , Vol 11 . 9th ed. ( American Society for Metals , Metals Park (OH) , 1986 ). 3. Majzoobi G.H...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.../asm.hb.v11.a0003544 Failure analysis was performed on a boiler feed pump second-stage impeller from a fossil fuel electric power station, The impeller, a 12% Cr martensitic stainless steel casting with an addition of 2% Cu, was used for pumping treated water into the boiler. Circumstances Leading...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001710
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... ( 1997 ). 3. Metals Handbook , 9th Edition , Metals Park, Ohio : ASM International , Volume 13 , p. 594 – 595 . Selected References Selected References • Forms of Corrosion , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2002 , p 761 – 795...