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Lead (metal)

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... the grain boundaries and the hydrogen that readily promoted decarburization with the use of dry (2 to 3% moisture content) coke. Maintaining a thick layer of coke over the entire surface of molten lead in the pan would exclude atmospheric oxygen from the grain boundaries. Decarburizing Lead (metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...%) of the good bearing compared with 7% lead of the failed bearing helped to establish a protective transfer layer on the worn surface. This transfer layer reduced metal-to-metal contact between the bearing and the roller and resulted in a lower wear rate. The lower lead content of the failed bearing does...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046972
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract During disassembly of an engine that was to be modified, a fractured turbine blade was found. When the fracture was examined at low magnification, it was observed that a fatigue fracture had originated on the concave side of the leading edge and had progressed slightly more...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., an isostress overtemperature lead specimen approach was taken, whereby failure of a test specimen in the laboratory would precede failures in the plant. These tests revealed approximately a 2:1 difference in life for the base metal as compared to weld metal. Electric power generation Outlet header...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...). The crack was opened by fracturing the vane. The crack surface displayed fatigue beach marks emanating from the seam-weld interface. Both the leading-edge and trailing-edge seam welds exhibited weld-metal expulsions up to 3.6 mm (0.14 in.) in length. Metallographic examination confirmed that metal expulsion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c0046238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
.... Thermal transformation of the metal also causes a stress concentration that may lead to fatigue failure. Recommendations included insulating the conductor to prevent arc burning at the base of the longitudinal oil hole. Also, a borescope or metal monitor could be used to inspect the hole for evidence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0092135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
...Abstract Abstract A shotgun barrel fabricated from 1138 steel deformed when test firing alternative nontoxic ammunition. The test shells contained soft iron shot, which at 72 HB, is much harder than traditional lead shot (typically 30 to 40 HB). An investigation based on ID and OD profiling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... presents a weaker resistance to corrosion affecting the rod life. Non-metallic inclusions are a pitting preferential site leading to fatigue crack initiation. Heterogeneous microstructure as banded martensite and ferrite/pearlite decreases the ductility of the material affecting the fatigue propagation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (max) MPa psi Solid-metal bearings Aluminum alloy SAE 770-T101 4.1 mm (0.162 in.) thick 34.5 5000 Bimetal bearings Tin babbitt 0.6 mm (0.022 in.) thick on steel 8.3 1200 Lead babbitt 0.6 mm (0.022 in.) thick on steel 9.7 1400 Tin babbitt 0.1 mm (0.004 in.) thick...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... and drilled for bolting on a heavy steel plate. The tank was filled to a record height. In mid-Jan the temperature dropped to -31 deg C (-23 deg F), with high winds. The tank split open and collapsed. The welding used the shielded metal arc process with E6010 electrodes, which could lead to weld porosity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is very serious. Adhesion results in a high coefficient of friction as well as in serious damage to the contacting surfaces. In extreme cases, it may lead to complete prevention of sliding; as such, adhesive wear represents one of the fundamental causes of failure for most metal sliding contacts...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of the base metal. The ragged surface of the drain groove probably contributed to even higher local stresses than would a smooth groove. Flame cutting of surfaces in these steels should be avoided because it can lead to local embrittlement and stress raisers that initiate major failures. In addition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A double-walled, hemispherical metal beam exit window made of alloy 718 developed a crack during service, leading to coolant leakage. The window had been exposed to radiation damage from 800 MeV protons and a cyclic stress from 600 MPa tensile to near zero induced by numerous...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract This paper deals with disk drive failures that occur in the interface area between the head and disk. The failures often lead to the loss of stored data and are characterized by circumferential microscratches that are usually visible to the unaided eye. The recording media...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001705
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... Coils (windings) Heat exchangers Lead Metal baths Wind tunnels 321 UNS S32100 347 UNS S34700 316 UNS S31600 Intergranular corrosion Intergranular fracture 1. Introduction 2. Background 3. Analysis History Prospects 4. Recommendations References References 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... included reducing the tube temperature, replacing the Schedule 40 100 deg bends with Schedule 80 pipe, and solution annealing the pipe after bending. Boiler tubes Brittle fracture Contaminants Creep (materials) Ductility Intergranular fracture Lead (metal), Impurities Mechanical properties...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract The operator of an electric transit system purchased a large number of tin-plated copper connectors, putting some in service and others in reserve. Later, when some of the reserve connectors were inspected, the metal surfaces were covered with spots consisting of an ash-like...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... using energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). This technique was also used on the metallographic sections to analyze surface deposits and base metal constituents. Fig. 7 Micrographs showing a deteriorated area of a nozzle. The surface corrosion is evident. Etched with Marble's reagent. (a) Leading...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ( Pittsburgh, PA ), and Report STP 1210, ASTM , 1993 , p 193 – 201 • Lewandowski J.J. , Kim Y.S. , and Holroyd N.J.H. , Lead-Induced Solid Metal Embrittlement of an Excess Silicon Al-Mg-Si Alloy at Temperatures of −4 °C to 80 °C , Metall. Trans. A , Vol 23 ( No. 6 ), June 1992...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... , Kim Y.S. , and Holroyd N.J.H. , Lead-Induced Solid Metal Embrittlement of an Excess Silicon Al-Mg-Si Alloy at Temperatures of −4 °C to 80 °C, Metall. Trans. A , Vol 23 ( No. 6 ), June 1992 , p 1679 – 1689 10.1007/BF02804363 • Lukowski J.T. , Kasul D.B. , Heldt L.A...