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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract Severely reduced wall thickness was encountered at the liquid line of a lead-bath pan that was used in a continuous strip or wire oil-tempering unit. Replacement of the pan was necessary after six months of service. The pan, 6.9 m (22.5 ft) long, 0.6 m (2 ft) wide, and 38 cm (15...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001705
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... (windings) Heat exchangers Lead Metal baths Wind tunnels 321 UNS S32100 347 UNS S34700 316 UNS S31600 Intergranular corrosion Intergranular fracture 1. Introduction A hypersonic wind tunnel uses freon gas (CF 4 ) as its working medium. Two lead-bath heat exchangers heat the freon to its...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047912
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract Examination of a connecting-rod shell bearing from a six-cylinder gasoline engine was done after it was returned to the factory. Copper-lead alloy SAE 485 bonded to a low-carbon steel backing was used to make the bearing and the oil used in the engine was the recommended one...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0092135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Abstract A shotgun barrel fabricated from 1138 steel deformed when test firing alternative nontoxic ammunition. The test shells contained soft iron shot, which at 72 HB, is much harder than traditional lead shot (typically 30 to 40 HB). An investigation based on ID and OD profiling supported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001494
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Diode leads that were to be made from OFHC copper were instead made from copper with high oxygen content. The leads had a nickel underplating, a gold final plating, and were brazed to the diode package in a hydrogen atmosphere. After brazing, the leads became embrittled. SEM...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 A section of the lead cable taken from outside of the detector rod near the inboard end of coil 4 and bent through 180°. Note that the cable is ductile, free of cracks and corrosion. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 4 Comparison of the surface phase on the lead cable: (a) outside of the detector rod at the inboard end of coil section 3; and, (b) inside the detector rod at coil position 1. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 5 (a) Section of lead cable from inside the detector rod at coil section 1 towards the outboard end showing spalling of the surface nitride phase; and, (b) intergranular crack in an Inconel 600 lead cable. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Stainless steel pan (top) for a molten-lead bath that failed as a result of wall thinning (shaded area) caused by oxidation and decarburization. Overall view of pan and section taken through a second pan (Section A-A) showing the relation of the thinned region to coke level. Dimensions More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 Cross-section of an OFHC copper diode lead with nickel underplating and gold plating. Plating cracked due to excessive back and forth bending of the lead, exposing the copper to oxidize, causing lead separation. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 SEM micrographs of a hydrogen embrittled copper lead fracture. (b) is a detailed micrograph of (a) and shows oxidized voids as X and ductile fracture areas as Y. More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 32 Sketch of two types of radial shear elements that would lead to a radial mark. Source: Ref 54 More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 47 Copper-lead phase diagram. Source: Ref 18 More
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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 12 Peaks of an EDAX spectrum showing the presence of silicon, vanadium, lead, and zinc More
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Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 3 Scanning electron micrograph showing lead segregation (indicated by arrows) at grain boundaries. More
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Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 4 EDX profile at lead-segregated regions indicated by arrows in Fig. 3 . More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 13 Micrograph of a section through a copper-lead alloy bearing that failed by deleading. Light area at the upper surface is the copper matrix that remained after the alloy was depleted of lead. As-polished. Original magnification: 100× More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Cracks were found on the wing leading edge of a test aircraft made from AZ31B magnesium alloy. Crack lengths were approximately 230 mm (9 in.) long on the left side and approximately 130 mm (5 in.) long on the right side. The cracks ran parallel to the leading edge. The 230-mm (9...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
..., the color near the key changed from yellow to red-brown. The gate was made from leaded red brass (85-5-5-5) while the spindle was made from silicon brass. It was concluded that the valves failed by dezincification resulting from bimetallic galvanic corrosion. It is common in the valve industry to use...