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Laminates

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A laminated-paper microwave food tray collapsed with hot food in it. Microscopic examination of the failed tray revealed no structural or material defects. Five additional trays of like construction were also tested to determine the conditions necessary to simulate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract A batch of bimetal foil/epoxy laminates was rejected because of poor peel strength. The laminates were manufactured by sintering a nickel/phosphorus powder layer to a copper foil, cleaning, then chromate conversion coating the nickel-phosphorus surface, and laminating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract This paper describes the analysis of the failure of a Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube in a CANDU reactor. The failure sequence was established as: (1) the existence of an undetected manufacturing flaw in the form of a lamination, (2) in-service development of the flaw by oxidation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article discusses the types of imperfections that can be traced to the original ingot product. These include chemical segregation; ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage; high hydrogen content; nonmetallic inclusions; unmelted electrodes and shelf; and cracks, laminations, seams, pits, blisters...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... lamination and crack in the tank wall adjacent to the tank nozzle. The mechanism of failure was overpressurization of the railroad tank car caused by a chemical reaction of the butadiene contents. The interrelationship of the mode, mechanism, and consequences of failure is reviewed to reconstruct...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
.... These defects were basically laminations of a similar form to those which resulted in the failure of the portion of pipe. Defects Magnetic testing Steam pipes Plate steel Metalworking-related failures The presence of internal laminations constitutes an objectionable feature in the plates...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048498
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... and trailing edges of the compression-loading skin panel were revealed by nondestructive visual examination. A band of de-lamination between the areas of through-thickness skin fracture at the front and rear spar was revealed. A map of the local directions of crack propagation over the fracture surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... steel and was adapted to the latter by diffusion only at the periphery of the inclusion. In another section of a hardened piece of the same chromium steel, the steel in this case had a structure of martensite with hypereutectic carbide, while the inclusions consisted of a very fine laminated eutectoid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... to be utilized to determine the exact nature of the defect. The investigation describes how cross-sectioning, fractography, and chemical analysis were utilized to determine the type of defect responsible for the signal attenuation. Aircraft components Disbonding Laminates Ultrasonic testing Kevlar...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001491
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... The potential failure modes are as follows. Possible Causes of Failure 1. Wrinkles and/or Secondary Shear Lines 2. Deficient Silica Phenolic Laminate Properties 3. Nozzle Insulator Structural Design Deficiency 4. Tape Angle Change 5. Deficiency Introduced by Process Changes A. Specifications...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of internal laminations constitutes an objectionable feature in the plates of vessels where heat transfer through the plates is required, particularly in the furnace rings of shell boilers. The laminations form an interruption to the heat path and instances are on record where overheating of the fireside...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...) Macrograph of a nital-etched section showing cracks propagating from the surface (top), which was hardened and embrittled during torch cutting. 7 1 2 ×. (c) Replacement hook of a laminated design made of ASTM A242 fine-grain steel plate. Dimensions given in inches Macroscopic examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... is contact area. To perform a test for determining the quality of babbit cohesion with the base (steel, babbit), laminated specimens were manufactured: babbit plus steel and babbit plus babbit with the intermediate tin sublayer applied according to different technologies in conformity with Table 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., with a distinctly abrupt change near the top side of the spring. The change in surface appearance was so distinct that laminated steel was suspected. However, subsequent microscopic examination of the cross section revealed the material to be sound. No lamination was found, only minor nonmetallic inclusions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in the ingot can seriously affect the quality and performance of wrought products. The major ingot imperfections are: Chemical segregation Ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage High hydrogen content Nonmetallic inclusions Unmelted electrodes and shelf Cracks, laminations, seams...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... The formation of these blisters suggested that the plate contained defects in the form of laminations and specimens were therefore prepared for microscopical examination. The presence of discontinuities in the form of slag films and stringers was confirmed, a typical region adjacent to the surface being seen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... In most instances the magnetite scale exhibited a laminated structure which closely followed the contours of the pits, as depicted in Fig. 21 . In the particular field illustrated, cracking of the scale has occurred in a direction normal to the metal surface and there was evidence that these fissures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... experienced. The effect of the air gap is comparable with that of a lamination in a furnace plate; heat transfer is restricted, the material on the fire-side of the defect suffers overheating and creep occurs giving rise to blistering, accompanied in many instances by cracking of the fire-side surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... aligned parallel to the predominant rolling direction of the plate. Fig. 8 Macro etched section taken adjacent to that seen in fig. 5 . Ultrasonic examination of both plates using a normal probe technique did not disclose the presence of any internal laminations, nor were any areas...