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Laminated paper

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A laminated-paper microwave food tray collapsed with hot food in it. Microscopic examination of the failed tray revealed no structural or material defects. Five additional trays of like construction were also tested to determine the conditions necessary to simulate the permanent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract This paper describes the analysis of the failure of a Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube in a CANDU reactor. The failure sequence was established as: (1) the existence of an undetected manufacturing flaw in the form of a lamination, (2) in-service development of the flaw by oxidation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006913
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... (a) Electrode type Electrode description (b) (c) Insulating materials 1 Opposing cylinders 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter, 25 mm (1 in.) thick with edges rounded to 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) radius Flat sheets of paper, films, fabrics, rubber, molded plastics, laminates, boards, glass, mica, and ceramic 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... that the numerous hairline cracks in the Alclad layer adjacent to the main fracture were fatigue cracks. This conclusion was supported by ref. 1 , in which was found a photomicrograph showing similar cracking of an Alclad layer, which had occurred during a fatigue test. In the reference paper the clad surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the amount of styrene co-reactant. Fig. 1 Percent gains in weight of ASTM C581 laminates of a high- and low-styrene-containing vinyl ester exposed at 66 °C (150 °F) to a distilled and saturated sodium chloride solution for 120 days Organic polymeric materials absorb moisture when...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to produce the sheet is critical to the final physical properties of the part. Sheet can be produced by laminating plastic films with interlayers of glass mat. Almost any form of glass mat can be used. The ability to use plastic films with different molecular and crystalline compositions in the center...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract This paper deals with disk drive failures that occur in the interface area between the head and disk. The failures often lead to the loss of stored data and are characterized by circumferential microscratches that are usually visible to the unaided eye. The recording media in disk...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... This study investigated implants made of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and 316L steel that were obtained from revision operations between 1993 and 2002. The operations were required because of various types of implant failures. This paper illustrates nine cases of metallurgical failures of a total hip prosthesis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006916
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... be used effectively for obtaining the spectra of particulate contaminants or of layers of a laminated product. The failure of polymer and plastic materials is often caused by using the wrong raw materials or the inhomogeneous distribution of the components inside the polymeric material. Also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... books published since 2014 cover various aspects of the subject. A particularly interesting publication is a CorrCompilation series volume published by NACE International that includes dozens of relevant papers and articles “to help walk the reader through the process of assessing the threat of MIC...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in failure. Finally, the material is examined for inherent defects in manufacture, processing, or assembly. Microstructural defects, subsurface laminations, and welding defects are common examples of materials defects that cause failure. In many cases when there is clear evidence of a materials-related...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... Abstract Vibration analysis can be used in solving both rotating and nonrotating equipment problems. This paper presents case histories that, over a span of approximately 25 years, used vibration analysis to troubleshoot a wide range of problems. Current testing Fans Generators Motors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., composition, or structure. It is not uncommon for the wrong material to have been used in an application that results in failure. Finally, the material is examined for inherent defects in manufacture, processing, or assembly. Microstructural defects, subsurface laminations, and welding defects are common...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and local loss of material Pitting corrosion Blisters and laminations Shell distortions Fatigue damage Cracklike flaws Creep damage Fire damage The code provides detailed guidelines for assessment and acceptance criteria, remaining life assessment, remediation, and in-service...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to isolate the variables. In some instances, ultrasonic testing has proved to be a useful tool in failure analysis, particularly in the investigation of large castings and forgings. Cracks, laminations, shrinkage cavities, bursts, flakes, pores, disbonds, and other discontinuities that produce reflective...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... levels Paper, plastics, concrete, ceramics, fabrics, wood, paint (a) PT, liquid penetrant test; MT, magnetic-particle test; IR, infrared; UV, ultraviolet This article focuses on the typical NDE techniques that may be considered when conducting a failure investigation. The coverage includes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., are B-staged so that the T g is close to the precure process temperature. Prepregs are sheets of oriented fibers or fabric that are impregnated with resin and B-staged; typically, several layers are laminated together under heat and pressure to fabricate a part. Glossary of characteristic cure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... by Ellis and Karasz. Also, the amount and rate of moisture absorption of a typical TGMDA/DDS laminate were found to increase with periodic exposure to thermal spikes ( Ref 25 ), such as those experienced on a supersonic aircraft. The absorptivity coefficient of a graphite-epoxy laminate was shown to double...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... or original fabrication (e.g., laminations, lack of fusion, lack of penetration, slag inclusions, porosity, etc.). A detailed inspection including both surface examination techniques (such as dye penetrant examination or magnetic-particle examination) and volumetric examination techniques (such as angled-beam...