1-20 of 559 Search Results for

Internal oxidation

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... the temperature supposedly did not exceed 1050 deg C. Structural observations indicated a special case of internal oxidation. The required conditions for this were apparently provided by the moist hydrogen atmosphere of the annealing furnace, in which the chromium was oxidized, while the oxides of iron and nickel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... a single 2.8 m sleeve. The findings from the investigation indicated that internal oxidation corrosion, driven by high temperatures, was the primary cause of failure. Prolonged exposure to temperatures up to 760 °C resulted in sensitization of the material, making it vulnerable to grain boundary attack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., allowing gases to shunt across the preheater/exchanger. Metallographic examination of the plates showed that accelerated internal oxidation had been the cause of failure. Corrosion racks of candidate alloys (types 304, 309, and 316 stainless steels, Inconel 600, Inconel 625, Incoloy 800, Incoloy 825...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Microstructural examinations on transverse cross sections of a steam reformer tube, showed the presence of large macrovoids elongated in the radial direction and emanating from the internal surface of the tube. The macrovoids were located at the interdendritic regions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A pressure vessel failed causing an external fire on a nine-story coke gasifier in a refinery power plant. An investigation revealed that the failure began as cracking in the gasifier internals, which led to bulging and stress rupture of the vessel shell, and the escape of hot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... years. Specimens were prepared for microscopical examination to include the defective zone and a section through a circumferential crack. The defective zone was found to contain numerous inclusions of slag and oxides of globular form. Regions surrounding the inclusions were decarburized, the indications...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... through the neck was sectioned; examination showed that the crack had extended through the repair weld. The crack had followed an intergranular path. The crack was opened, and binocular-microscope examination of the fracture surface showed that the surface contained dendrites with discolored oxide films...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Following the fusing of one of the copper leads in the choke circuit of an electric welder, a piece of the affected lead was obtained for examination. The sample had large internal cavities and surface bulges. It is remarkable that a wire containing defects of the magnitude...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... vessels at the same location, cracking in course of development was discovered during internal inspection. Microscope examination of several specimens cut to intersect a crack showed it to be typical of corrosion-fatigue; it was in the form of a broad fissure, contained oxide deposits, and the termination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the visual, fractographic, and metallographic evidence typically encountered when analyzing stress rupture of turbine airfoils. Stress-rupture fractures are generally heavily oxidized, tend to be rough in texture, and are primarily intergranular...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and HAZS. Cracked pipe sections were removed for laboratory examination, which revealed that the cracks initiated on the internal surfaces and propagated through the welds and HAZs ( Fig. 2 ). The internal surfaces were covered with a thin, tightly adherent layer of iron oxides. No general corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... resulted in a higher hot-gas wall temperature and associated degradation of mechanical properties. Combustion chambers Engine components Internal oxidation Pinholes Reentry vehicles Rocket engines Transgranular fracture NARloy-Z High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Brittle fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a equals the percentage by volume of austenite, and C equals the percentage by weight of carbon dissolved in austenite and martensite. If the value of (Δ V / V ) is known or can be computed, then internal stresses that are developed in a part due to temperature differences (Δ T ) arising from either...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... A particular internal oxidation characteristic was observed in this study. Figure 2b shows part of the inner scale with an internal oxidation zone or sub-oxide layer. This layer is the substrate oxidation product along the substrate interface and granular boundaries with a distribution width of 2–5 μm...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001194
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of metallic copper next to oxidic precipitates (“internal oxidation”). This copper had accumulated in the residual iron as difficult-to-oxidize metal ( Figs. 4 and 5 ). The oxidation had penetrated already 3 mm into the steel along the grain boundaries ( Fig. 6 ). Fig. 4 Oxidized edge, etch: Nital...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... sections of a grate bar showed a microstructure typical of HH cast stainless steel. Near the surface were features derived from the corrosive attack: a complex oxide layer at the surface, small cracks in the metal near the surface (with corrosion products in them), and some internal oxides and sulfides...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... , “Temperature Estimation and Life Prediction of Turbine Blades Using Post Service Oxidation Measurements,” presented at the International Gas Turbine and Aero Engine Congress & Exhibition , June 1996 ( Birmingham, U.K. ), American Society of Mechanical Engineers Paper 96-GT-528 Selected References...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Moreover, evidence of internal oxidation was also found at crack tips. The straight crack paths may then appear because the internal oxidation (due to oxide cracking as explained above) damages the microstructural boundaries ahead of the crack tip. Thermo-physical properties of die materials have...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and accelerate the degradation process. R.C. Pennefather and D.H. Boone have suggested that depletion of aluminum was not the only controlling factor in the coating life [ 8 ]. The cause of coating failure appeared to be a combination of internal oxidation and mechanical thinning of the coating. Rumpling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Oxidation Increases viscosity Slows quench rate; properties may not be achieved Dragout increased Staining of parts increased Water Increases stability of vapor phase Temperature of maximum cooling is drastically lowered . Cooling rate in convection region...