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Intergranular precipitation

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... couples formed between precipitates and the alloy matrix, leading to severe intergranular attack. No recommendations were made. Marine environments Sensitization Ship hulls 5083 UNS A95083 Intergranular corrosion The 5 xxx series of aluminum alloys are often selected for weldability and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cracking steam generator tubes INTERGRANULAR FRACTURE is decohesion that occurs along a grain boundary. Intergranular fracture is often associated with the presence of an embrittlement mechanism or the presence of precipitates and segregates at the grain boundary, which make the grain boundary the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001086
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... enlargements shown in Fig. 14 and 15 . After etching, grain-boundary precipitation was evident ( Fig. 16 , 17 , 18 ). Fig. 14 Higher-magnification view of area B in Fig. 8 . Much intergranular cracking is visible on the surface and on the subsurface. Unetched. 50×. Fig. 15 Higher...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... LMIE. Intergranular fracture processes, whether hydrogen or stress-corrosion enhanced, are frequently observed in high-strength steels, aluminum alloys, and nickel-base alloys. The resistance to SCC or hydrogen embrittlement of single-phase materials or materials with dispersoids or precipitate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., intergranular fatigue failure in austenitic stainless steels usually occurs only in the presence of grain-boundary embrittlement. This type of embrittlement is usually the result of nitriding, intergranular oxidation, carbide precipitation, or the formation of σ or χ phase. There was no metallographic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... be accepted only if it meets specification. Figure 2 is a scanning electron micrograph showing the eutectic plus proeutectic β-Zn phase. Intergranular cracking is evident. Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis revealed that the black precipitates in the proeutectic regions were (α-Al phase. The...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... depleted in chromium as a result of this carbide precipitation can be attacked by corrosion or dissolved out ( Fig. 11 ), which causes the alloy to lose its cohesion. This type of corrosion is therefore known as grain disintegration or intergranular corrosion, The pronounced localized concentration of the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...) stainless steel casting, exhibiting sensitization (chromium carbide precipitation at the grain boundaries) and susceptibility to intergranular corrosion. The sensitization of the stainless steel casting was probably the consequence of slow cooling after the casting process and thus longer dwell time at...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... temperatures in the sensitizing range, caused severe intergranular corrosion in the HAZ below the melt level (region f), at the melt level (region e), and 45 mm (1 3 4 in.) above the melt level (region d). Although carbide precipitation was present in the remaining three areas, intergranular...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract The origins of the casting are unknown. It is included here as a classic case of intergranular corrosion. The part (apparently a pump outlet) was named the “rubber casting” because of the severity of the intergranular attack. Every grain boundary has been attacked to the extent that...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... were located in wide bands running circumferentially below the cross-to-cap weld and above the cap-to-discharge-pipe weld. The material was found to conform to the requirements both in terms of hardness and strength. Intergranular cracks filled with oxide were observed on metallographic analysis of a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Two AISI type 316 stainless steel dished ends failed through the formation of intergranular stress-corrosion cracks (IGSCC) within a few months of service. The dished ends failed in the straight portions near the circumferential welds that joined the ends to the cylindrical portions of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract An intergranular stress-corrosion cracking failure of 304 stainless steel pipe in 2000 ppm B as H3BO3 + H2O at 100 deg C was investigated. Constant extension rate testing produced an intergranular type failure in material in air. Chemical analysis was performed on both the base metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... showed intergranular cracks originating at weld toes and filled with oxidation product, which precluded determination of the cracking mechanism. All weldments exhibited high degrees of secondary precipitates, with original fabrication welds exhibiting higher apparent levels than repair welds. SEM/EDS...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... respectively of the welds. 20 × Fig. 8 Examples of corrosion and poor penetration respectively of the welds. 20 × Intergranular sulphur penetration was sought specifically at high power but none was found. However, all specimens showed carbide precipitation and heavy etching attack at the grain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... heat treatment (which would offer lower strength but higher toughness) could be used for this part. Grain boundaries Precipitates Scanning electron microscopy Sensitizing 17-7 PH UNS S17700 Intergranular corrosion Stress-corrosion cracking Heat treating-related failures Brittle fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... weld. Metallographic examination showed that cracking was intergranular and that adjacent grain boundaries had undergone deep intergranular attack. Examination at higher magnification revealed heavy carbide precipitation, primarily at grain boundaries, indicating that the alloy had been sensitized...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... figures indicate that the material was an austenitic stainless steel of the type specified but the absence of columbium and titanium in significant amounts shows that it was not stabilised against intergranular carbide precipitation, which might lead to intercrystalline corrosion cracking in service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... reduced. Even the carbon suffered incomplete combustion and was enriched in the core. Thus, no protective layer could form or be maintained. The intergranular advancement of the oxidation may have been favored by the precipitation of chromium-rich carbides on the austenite grain boundaries. This form of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... poppet susceptible to intergranular corrosive attack (IGA) from a decontaminant containing hydroxy-acetic acid. This attack provided pathways for which fluid could leak across the sealing surface in the closed condition. It was concluded that the current design is flight worthy if the poppet valve...