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Intergranular precipitation

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Intergranular precipitation Shot peening 431 UNS S43100 Stress-corrosion cracking The T-bolt shown in Fig. 1(a) was part of the coupling for a bleed air duct of a jet engine on a transport plane. Specifications required that the 4.8-mm ( 3 16 -in.) diam T-bolt be made of AISI type 431...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... partial pressures of the gases within the duct, combined with the high temperatures, facilitated nitrogen pickup. No recommendations were made. Intergranular precipitation Oxidation Spalling Inconel 317 UNS N06617 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation The presence of carbides...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... cracks showed intergranular cracks originating at weld toes and filled with oxidation product, which precluded determination of the cracking mechanism. All weldments exhibited high degrees of secondary precipitates, with original fabrication welds exhibiting higher apparent levels than repair welds. SEM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... a different heat treatment (which would offer lower strength but higher toughness) could be used for this part. Grain boundaries Precipitates Scanning electron microscopy Sensitizing 17-7 PH UNS S17700 Intergranular corrosion Stress-corrosion cracking Heat treating-related failures Brittle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... a work metal that is less susceptible to intergranular carbide precipitation. Aircraft components Carbide precipitation Clamps Sensitization 19-9 DL UNS S63198 Stress-corrosion cracking The clamp shown in Fig. 1(a) was used for securing the hot air ducting system on fighter aircraft...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Intergranular corrosion. (a) Sample from a cast stainless steel neck fitting. (b) Region adjacent to the intergranular corrosion revealing extensive a-phase precipitation at grain boundaries; electrolytic etching using 10 N KOH. (c) Same area as (b) after repolishing and etching More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 34 Intergranular corrosion. (a) Sample from a cast stainless steel neck fitting. (b) Region adjacent to the intergranular corrosion revealing extensive σ-phase precipitation at grain boundaries; electrolytic etching using 10 N KOH. (c) Same area as (b) after repolishing and etching More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 58 Intergranular corrosion. (a) Sample from a cast stainless steel neck fitting. (b) Region adjacent to the intergranular corrosion revealing extensive σ-phase precipitation at grain boundaries; electrolytic etching using 10 N KOH. (c) Same area as (b) after repolishing and etching More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... near the weld metal/base metal interface. Intergranular carbide precipitation was found in both the weld metal and the HAZ of the base metal of weld 3. This was attributed to local overheating during the welding process that had vaporized most of the titanium stabilizer. Carbides then formed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cracking steam generator tubes INTERGRANULAR FRACTURE is decohesion that occurs along a grain boundary. Intergranular fracture is often associated with the presence of an embrittlement mechanism or the presence of precipitates and segregates at the grain boundary, which make the grain boundary...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001086
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the welds in a highly sensitized state. The sensitized material lost corrosion resistance, became embrittled along the grain boundaries, and finally failed by intergranular cracking. Use of type 410 martensitic stainless steel was recommended. Embrittlement Heat-affected zone Sensitizing Vanes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of the weld. Metallographic examination showed that cracking was intergranular and that adjacent grain boundaries had undergone deep intergranular attack. Examination at higher magnification revealed heavy carbide precipitation, primarily at grain boundaries, indicating that the alloy had been sensitized...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... that the material was an austenitic stainless steel of the type specified but the absence of columbium and titanium in significant amounts shows that it was not stabilised against intergranular carbide precipitation, which might lead to intercrystalline corrosion cracking in service should the material be exposed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... couples formed between precipitates and the alloy matrix, leading to severe intergranular attack. No recommendations were made. Marine environments Sensitization Ship hulls 5083 UNS A95083 Intergranular corrosion The 5 xxx series of aluminum alloys are often selected for weldability...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... of the welds. 20 × Fig. 8 Examples of corrosion and poor penetration respectively of the welds. 20 × Intergranular sulphur penetration was sought specifically at high power but none was found. However, all specimens showed carbide precipitation and heavy etching attack at the grain boundaries...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Ductility Embrittlement Intergranular precipitation Steam Piping ASME SA387-C (Other, general, or unspecified) corrosion Brittle fracture A 75-cm (30-in.) OD by 33-mm (1.31-in.) thick pipe in a horizontal section of a hot steam reheat line ruptured explosively with serious damage and loss of life...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that cause IG fracture of steels. Mechanisms of IG fracture in alloy steels are also described in Ref 17 . Intergranular Fracture of Steels due to Grain-Boundary Precipitates This type of IG fracture is caused by the presence of well-defined second-phase precipitates at the grain boundaries. It may...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... is a scanning electron micrograph showing the eutectic plus proeutectic β-Zn phase. Intergranular cracking is evident. Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis revealed that the black precipitates in the proeutectic regions were (α-Al phase. The a-Al phase is known to precipitate out even at room temperature from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0089663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... hole. The combination of cyclic loading (thermal fatigue), an aggressive service environment (steam), and internal defects resulted in gradual crack propagation, which was, at times, intergranular-with or without corrosive attack-and, at other times, was transgranular. Casings Casting defects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., alloying additive Nickel steel - 9Ni Nickel steels Segregations 9 steel Intergranular fracture Casting-related failures Background The 9% Ni steels have been widely used for cryogenic applications, as in storage vessels and related components for liquid natural gas. Castings of 9% Ni steel...