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Intergranular fracture

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article briefly reviews the factors that influence the occurrence of intergranular (IG) fractures. Because the appearance of IG fractures is often very similar, the principal focus is placed on the various metallurgical or environmental factors that cause grain boundaries to...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090881
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... power generation Steam generators Tubes Inconel 600 UNS N06600 Intergranular fracture Power plants use steam generators, which have hot reactor coolant water flowing through the generators. One power plant experienced a steam generator tube rupture in the early 1990s. Metallurgical evaluation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... separation under subsequent loading. The studs fractured under service loads as a result of intergranular crack propagation in the HAZ. Rapid heating and cooling during attachment welding produced a martensitic structure in the HAZ of the stud, which cracked circumferentially from the combination of thermal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... concluded that overheating or burning of the forging, which classically results in large grain size, intergranular fractures, and fine oxide particles dispersed throughout the grains was the possible reason for the failure. Intergranular fracture Overheating Piping Stress relieving ASME SA182-F304...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... suggested that failure resulted from an intergranular attack. Subsequent microscope examination confirmed the generally intergranular mode of failure. A macro-etched section near the fracture revealed a radial arrangement of columnar crystals, indicating that the spindle was a cast and not a wrought product...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... failures Intergranular fracture Samples from an AISI type 316 stainless steel heat-exchanger shell were submitted for examination after radiographic testing revealed the presence of subsurface cracks in a longitudinal weld seam of the shell. The heat exchanger had been in service for 12 years...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... fitting for the dome opening. Eutectics Grain boundaries Melting 2219-T62 UNS A92219 Intergranular fracture Joining-related failures An air bottle, machined from a solid block of aluminum alloy 2219-T852, displayed liquid-penetrant crack indications after assembly welding ( Fig. 1a ). The...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...-3) grade can be specified. Procedures are given in a reference for screening castings that may be susceptible to intergranular corrosion due to processing errors. Castings Heat treatment Pumps Sensitizing CN-7M UNS N08007 Intergranular fracture Intergranular corrosion The origins of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... relieved at 900 deg C (1650 deg F) for 2 h and rapidly cooled to minimize residual stresses. Chlorides Fused salt electrolysis Fused salts Potassium Sodium 304 UNS S30400 Intergranular corrosion Intergranular fracture A fused-salt electrolytic-cell pot containing a molten eutectic mixture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... ions. Chlorides Nuclear power reactors Piping Sensitization Sulfer 304 UNS S30400 Stress-corrosion cracking Intergranular fracture References 1. Pande C.S. , Suenage M. , Vyas B. , Isaacs H.S. , and Hailing D.F. , Scripta Metallurgica...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... piping and bellows. Bellows Expansion joints Sigma phase Weld joints 321 UNS S32100 Intergranular fracture Fatigue fracture A type 321 stainless steel bellows expansion joint on a 17-cm (6 3 4 -in.) OD inlet line in a gas-turbine test facility cracked during operation. Cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract A crack was found in an aircraft main wing spar flange fabricated from 7079-T6 aluminum alloy during a routine nondestructive x-ray inspection after the craft had logged 300 h. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed an intergranular fracture pattern indicative of stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... screws and two unused, exemplar fasteners from the same lot supported the conclusion that the cap screws appear to have failed due to hydrogen embrittlement, as revealed by delayed cracking and intergranular fracture morphology. Static brittle overload fracture occurred due to the tension preload, and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Three wing flap hinge bearings were received by the laboratory for analysis. The bearings were fabricated from chromium-plated type 440C martensitic stainless steel. The intergranular fracture pattern seen in the electron fractographs, coupled with the corrosion pits observed on the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047192
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... chemical analysis) supported the conclusion that the failure was caused due to brittle fatigue, as evidenced by the intergranular nature of the fracture path. Also, hydrogen penetration occurred during the plating operation and was not relieved subsequently as required. Accumulators Cadmium plating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... the casting fractured as a result of the derailment, the fracture followed the scale in the contaminated region thus creating the “rock candy” fracture. Copper Inclusions Rail steels Rock candy fracture Fe-0.25C Intergranular fracture In December 1977, a freight train derailed near...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... torsional loading (along a plane 45 deg to the wire axis). Liquid-metal embrittlement was expected to have been caused by metals (Sn, Zn, Pb) which melt much below maximum service temperature of the turbine. The springs were concluded to have fractured by intergranular stress-corrosion cracking promoted by...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0090947
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... the fracture occurred via brittle overload, which was predominantly intergranular. The amount of bending evidence and the directionality of the core overload fracture features suggest that the applied stresses were not purely axial, as would be anticipated in this application. The level of retained...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... examination of a failed bolt showed the path of the fracture and the secondary cracking associated with it were intergranular, suggesting that failure resulted from stress corrosion. A steel of the rimming type had been used to make the bar from which the bolt was forged. Cracks which originate at the root of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... of the seams. By the time the investigation was begun a total of fifty heads had broken off. Repairs had been effected from time to time by fitting screwed rivets, none of which gave trouble in service. Microscopic examination confirmed the fracture path to be wholly intergranular. In the region of...