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Intergranular fracture

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article briefly reviews the factors that influence the occurrence of intergranular (IG) fractures. Because the appearance of IG fractures is often very similar, the principal focus is placed on the various metallurgical or environmental factors that cause grain boundaries to...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090881
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... power generation Steam generators Tubes Inconel 600 UNS N06600 Intergranular fracture Power plants use steam generators, which have hot reactor coolant water flowing through the generators. One power plant experienced a steam generator tube rupture in the early 1990s. Metallurgical evaluation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... ions. Chlorides Nuclear power reactors Piping Sensitization Sulfer 304 UNS S30400 Stress-corrosion cracking Intergranular fracture Inspections of piping in the Three Mile Island Unit #1 spent fuel system in April 1979 revealed five through wall cracks near welded joints...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... piping and bellows. Bellows Expansion joints Sigma phase Weld joints 321 UNS S32100 Intergranular fracture Fatigue fracture A type 321 stainless steel bellows expansion joint on a 17-cm (6 3 4 -in.) OD inlet line in a gas-turbine test facility cracked during operation. Cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... examination of a failed bolt showed the path of the fracture and the secondary cracking associated with it were intergranular, suggesting that failure resulted from stress corrosion. A steel of the rimming type had been used to make the bar from which the bolt was forged. Cracks which originate at the root of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... torsional loading (along a plane 45 deg to the wire axis). Liquid-metal embrittlement was expected to have been caused by metals (Sn, Zn, Pb) which melt much below maximum service temperature of the turbine. The springs were concluded to have fractured by intergranular stress-corrosion cracking promoted by...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001482
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... tubes Copper Liquid metals Penetration Steel tube Liquid metal induced embrittlement Intergranular fracture This case involves penetration by molten copper in connection with the economiser of a large water-tube boiler. Shortly after this had been put into commission leakage occurred at the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... temperature of 130 deg C (266 deg F). Magnetic crack detection revealed circumferential crack-like indications situated a short distance from the butt weld. Cracking originated on the bore surfaces of the tube and was of an intergranular nature reminiscent of caustic cracking in steam boilers. The strength of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... were made. Intergranular corrosion Nozzles Nuclear reactor components Inconel 600 UNS N06600 Stress-corrosion cracking Intergranular fracture Cracking occurred in an ASME SB166 Inconel 600 safe-end forging on a nuclear reactor coolant water recirculation nozzle while it was in service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... sulfate Steam pipes Welded joints Cr-Mo steel Stress-corrosion cracking Intergranular fracture Several bellows of the articulated, unit type — 10 in. i.d. — developed leakage from the convolutions after a service life of some 18 months. One of the units received from examination showed cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... found its way past the tube expansions. This indicated that this operation had not resulted in a satisfactorily tight joint. Boiler tubes Caustic cracking Leakage Sodium hydroxide Tube components Fe-0.11C-0.46Mn Intergranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking Caustic cracking is the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Residual stresses Steam generators Tube components Tubes Inconel 600 UNS N06600 Intergranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking A steam generator is a key component used in the generation of steam in a closed-cycle pressurized-water nuclear power plant. It is essentially a large heat exchanger...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the most likely cause of failure. 439 Intergranular stress corrosion Postweld heat treatment Sensitization 430 UNS S43000 Intergranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking A heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) generates steam from the heat of exhaust gases from a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...-related failures Intergranular fracture When a steam turbine was put out of service, cracks were noticed on many of the blades in the low pressure section round the stabilisation bolts and perpendicular to the blade axis ( Fig. 1 ). According to the literature 1 such blades are made from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... washers at each end. This assembly became loose, thereby allowing air under pressure to enter the waterside of the cooler and expel the water, leading to overheating and ultimately to the damage described. Air compressors Combustion Heat exchanger tubes Overheating Brass Intergranular fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... replacement installed. Austenitic stainless steel Fatigue fracture Intergranular fracture The Savannah River Site (SRS) has five nuclear material production reactors (C, K, L, P and R) which were designed and built in the early 1950's, at the direct request of President Truman. These...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... startup, culminating in catastrophic failure as soon as the crack exceeded critical length. Ammonia Condenser tubes Refrigerating machinery Weld defects Welded joints API 5L B ASTM A234 grade WPB UNS K03006 Joining-related failures Intergranular fracture Hydrogen damage and embrittlement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Pressure vessels Welded joints ASTM A204 Grade A UNS K11820 Intergranular fracture Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Welds in two carbon-molybdenum (0.5% Mo) steel catalytic gas-oil desulfurizer reactors cracked under hydrogen pressure-temperature conditions for which hydrogen damage would not...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...-0.36C-0.58Mn-1.15Cr-1.0Ni-0.15Mo Stress-corrosion cracking Intergranular fracture The Air Compressor with which this case is concerned was installed at a chemical plant in which nitric acid was produced by burning ammonia with air. It was a 5000 hp, 5-stage centrifugal machine running at 6000 rpm...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... system (up to 560 mm, or 22 in., in diameter) disclosed no such defects. Samples of the 150 mm (6 in.) pipe were submitted to three laboratories for independent examination. Inspection in all three laboratories disclosed that all the defects were circumferential intergranular cracks that had originated...