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Interface reactions

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... did not occur during the sintering thermal cycle. It was recommended that the prosthetic manufacturer investigate atmosphere controls for all thermal cycles prior to coating. Adhesion Bonding strength Interface reactions Powder coating Surgical implants ASTM F75 UNS R30075 Surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... , Ed., ASM International , 2002 , p 289 – 311 . 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517 • Mason P. , Engstrom A. , Agren J. and Hallstrom S. , Simulation of Diffusion in Surface and Interface Reactions , Metals Process Simulation , Vol 22B , ASM Handbook , Furrer D.U...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0049838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... correspond to specific intermetallic compounds that are found in the aluminum-iron phase diagram. X-ray microanalysis of reaction zone at the aluminum wire/steel screw interface shown in <xref rid="c0049838-f2" ref-type="fig">Fig. 2(a)</xref> Table 1 X-ray microanalysis of reaction zone...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ]. The oxygen content of the steam vapor in the tube was low (0.007–0.030 mg/L). Thus, the corrosion of the pipe, particularly through water steam oxidation, can be considered a hypoxic process. These reactions formed the main oxide layer (FeO/Fe 3 O 4 /Fe 2 O 3 ) on the tube surface. The influence of water...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of dissolution per unit area at a given temperature, T ; K is the surface reaction rate constant; δ is the thickness of the boundary layer in the liquid phase; C sat is the concentration of the dissolving solid, in the liquid, at the interface; C ∞ is the concentration of the dissolving phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 4 -Na 2 SO 4 or NiSO 4 -Na 2 SO 4 liquids via reaction of CoO or NiO with SO 2 . Courtesy of Z. Tang and B. Gleeson, University of Pittsburgh Fig. 23 Effect of molten salt on hot corrosion at 700 °C (1290 °F) in air. With the lower melting temperatures of salt mixtures, the corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... study, the presence of sulfur (5 wt.pct.) at the alloy/crystal interface is indicative of redeposition of copper since copper and nickel are known to diffuse outward through the reaction products. Although no copper sulfide phase was observed, the source of the sulfur at this interface could only have...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... combination of properties than any other steel microstructure. Heating rates are relatively low at typical tempering temperatures. Therefore, care must be taken to maintain uniform temperature, thereby ensuring uniform properties throughout the part. Likewise, tempering reactions occur at much lower rates...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... , McGrawHill Book Co. , New York , p. 387 ( 1953 ). 4. Berry W. E. , “Reactions with Nitrogen Coolant,” Corrosion in Nuclear Applications , J. Wiley , New York , p. 402 ( 1971 ). 5. Strafford K. N. , “A Comparison of High Temperature Nitridation and Oxidation Behaviour...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... the exchanger tubes to impose load on seal welds and the shell side cooling water entered the crevice between the tubesheet and the tubes. The cooling water in the crevice caused galvanic reaction and embrittlement of seal welds. Brittle crack opening and crack propagation in seal welds occurred due...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... material selection wear test WEAR is defined as surface damage with gradual removal of material from solid surfaces by abrasives or a counterface in relative motion. Corrosion is the deterioration of a metal as a result of chemical reactions between it and the surrounding environment, involving metal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... reactions including sensitization, stress-corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue. It concludes with a discussion on various protective coatings, such as aluminide coatings, overlay coatings, thermal barrier coatings, and ceramic coatings. References References 1. Fontana M.G. , Corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... corrosion, also known as crevice corrosion, occurs at the faying surfaces of the brazed joint. Interface corrosion is a metallurgical and chemical reaction that develops in brazements of stainless steels, especially those of the 400 series, when these materials are brazed with some of the low-temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in interdendritic spaces. Etched in electrolytic nitric acid. 1000×. Crack Origins/Paths Open cracks ran along the dendrites in some locations. The direction of these cracks sometimes changed abruptly at weld bead interfaces, where the crack followed the dendritic orientation of the new bead ( Fig. 10...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... currents of ions set up between the metal surface and the aqueous environment are responsible for the growth of the oxide layers ( Ref 2 ). Reactions at the metal/oxide interface result in the growth of the compact Fe 3 O 4 . The outer porous oxide is formed Fe +2 ions migrating outward react with OH...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... then occur from the cracked thread root under the sustained high-stress clamp load, with subsequent ultimate fracture of the fastener. Fig. 8 Interaction of a corrosive environment with a carburized and zinc plated high strength fastener under stress Anode reaction Zn ↔ Zn+ + +2e−; Cathode reaction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Rates and Mechanisms for a High Strength Steel , Wear , Vol 301 ( No. 1–2 ), 2013 , p 491 – 500 10.1016/j.wear.2013.01.018 71. Baydoun S. , Arnaud P. , and Fouvry S. , Modelling Adhesive Wear Extension in Fretting Interfaces: An Advection-Dispersion-Reaction Contact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... , Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct. , Vol 13 (No. 3 ), 1990 , p 213 10.1111/j.1460-2695.1990.tb00594.x 8. Naro R.L. and Wallace J.F. , Effect of Mold-Steel Interface Reactions on Casting Surface and Properties , AFS Trans. , Vol 75 , 1967 , p 741 9. Naro R.L...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Kinetics of Cu6Sn5 Intermetallic Compound in Cu-Liquid Sn Interfacial Reaction Enhanced by Electric Current, Sci . Rep. , Vol 8 (No. 1 ), 2018 , p 1 – 10 10.1038/s41598-018-20100-1 32. “ Test Methods for Characterization of Printed Board Assembly Pad Cratering ,” IPC-9708, IPC , Dec 2010...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... mapping revealed that the surface scale was composed mainly of chromium oxide with islands of iron/nickel sulfide and chromium sulfide. At the interface between the scale and the base metal chromium sulfide predominated ( Fig. 3 ). The intergranular scale consisted mainly of chromium sulfide with some...