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Inlet headers

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089738
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract While undergoing vibration testing, a type 347 stainless steel inlet header for a fuel-to-air heat exchanger cracked in the header tube adjacent to the weld bead between the tube and header duct. Investigation (visual inspection and liquid penetrant inspection) supported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... All of the leaks occurred in the first bend after steam entered the inlet header. The original superheater tube U-bends were specified to be SA-106 Grade B pipe, while the four replacement tubes were specified to be 316 stainless steel. The waste heat boiler system had been retrofitted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...: Sample A from steam generator No. 2, which was cut transverse to the weld. This particular sample had a radiation count between 150 and 200 counts/min above background. Sample B from steam generator No. 1 Sample C from steam generator No. 1, which was taken vertically (120 to 150° from the inlet...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... welds on this harp had pitting, weld toe cracking, and many other liquid penetrant test (PT) indications. A second harp on this unit had pitting on the inlet side of its lower header. The remaining harp had no indications. The two corroded harps were bypassed, with their feedwater flow redirected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the pump are welded to the reactor inlet header (RIH). The RIH is supported on four large steel brackets, each embedded into the building concrete, by means of horseshoe clamps ( Fig. 4 ). A clearance is provided between the horseshoe clamps and the header that allows free axial expansion of the headers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... headers, each of which “tees” to a main transfer line. The top tube ends are flanged for ease of catalyst addition and removal, and the inlet pigtails are accessible and easily pinched off in case of tube leaks. The exit pigtails are in a bottom trough shielded from heat radiation, and are inaccessible...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... chamber. The gas leaves the reformer through the flue gas outlet nozzle. The feed gas flows through the inlet gas nozzle at the top of the reformer shell and is then distributed through a manifold system to the inlet hole at the top of each reformer tube. The characteristic layout of an HTCR tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... design was changed, flange connections were added to the header ends, and two tube rows were changed to SB 407 alloy 800H from alloy 800. The superheater ( Fig. 1 ) includes inlet and outlet headers at the top, with tubes suspended from these headers. The assembly is one of several exchangers suspended...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of flow among tubes joined to a common header, localized deposits near a tube inlet, or local variations in the inside diameter because of variations in fabrication techniques. Rapid overheating, which is most likely to occur at startup, during periods of rapid fluctuation in steam demand, or during...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... (a) Schematic diagram of the weld preparation and the position of the failed weld. (b) Schematic of crack initiation and propagation from the root of the weld Fig. 23 Fatigue cracking at weld toes Fig. 24 Fatigue cracking at weld roots Fig. 25 Type 347 stainless steel inlet header...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... from the outlet end looking toward the inlet end) near the crown of the pipe at about the 5:30 position. The failure appearance is characterized by the following: transgranular cracking, numerous, circumferential oriented O.D. initiating cracks, radial crack propagation direction, crescent shaped crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... The reaction occurs inside heat-resistant, spun-cast tubes. These are high-chromium and nickel alloy tubes that are welded to the headers and pigtails that connect the inlet of reagents and the exit of products to the main transfer line. The design of the reformer furnace components takes into account...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... 1 are constructed by welding spun-cast pieces of tubing approximately 3 m (10 ft) in length. The connection between columns is made by welded headers. The inlet and exit of products is achieved by the use of pigtails. Fig. 1 Schematic of the continuous arrangement of the reformer furnace...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Hydrotesting A 150-cm (60-in.) inside-diameter boiler drum fabricated of 18-cm (7-in.) thick ASTM A515, grade 70, steel failed during final hydrotesting at a pressure of approximately 26 MPa (3.8 ksi). The shock wave from the vessel rupture also damaged several connected headers and piping runs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the epoxy lining. Source: Ref 3 Fig. 11 Failed brine-heater shell of ASTM A285, grade C carbon steel. The shell fractured at welded joints because of overstress during normal operation. Dimensions in inches Fig. 19 Economizer inlet tube showing open rupture and a hole. Source: Ref 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... diameter boiler drum fabricated of 18 cm (7 in.) thick ASTM A515, grade 70 steel plate failed during final hydrotesting at a pressure of approximately 26 MPa (3.8 ksi). The shock wave from the vessel rupture also damaged several connected headers and piping runs. A schematic of the crack path, including...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as local imbalance of flow among tubes joined to a common header, localized deposits near a tube inlet, or local variations in inside diameter because of variations in fabrication techniques. Rapid overheating, which is most likely to occur at start-up, during periods of rapid fluctuation in steam demand...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with greater longevity than expected of machines operating under peak duty. There is also a trend toward increasing turbine inlet temperatures to increase turbine efficiency. Time-dependent damage mechanisms such as creep, corrosion, as well as TMF can become more important in this context. Useful service...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the condenser. Stress-corrosion cracking failures are found often at inlet or outlet ends, where the tubes have been expanded into the tubesheet. Stress-corrosion cracking may be reduced by either removing applied or residual stresses or by avoiding concentrated corrodents. The reduction of corrodents...