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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Octagonal cast ingots weighing 6.5 tons and made of unalloyed heat treated steel CK 45 according to DIN 17200, and crankshafts forged from these ingots showed internal separations during ultrasonic testing. To determine the cause of defect, an ingot slice and a crank arm were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract An octagonal steel ingot weighing 13 tons made of manganese-molybdenum steel developed gaping cross-cracks on all eight sides in the forging press during initial pressure application. It was reported that the steel had been melted in a basic 12-ton arc furnace, oxygenated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., i.e., from partial to total decarburization. Observations suggested the defects originated at the stages of ingot making and rolling. This was apparently the reason for complete decarburization of the area with original surface defect which opened up further in the oxidizing atmosphere of the furnace...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article discusses the types of imperfections that can be traced to the original ingot product. These include chemical segregation; ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage; high hydrogen content; nonmetallic inclusions; unmelted electrodes and shelf; and cracks, laminations, seams, pits, blisters...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... occurred in a region depleted of chromium and nickel. This condition coincides with a microstructural inhomogeneity consisting of large, soft ferrite grains. Its origin was probably contamination of the solidifying ingot during the consumable vacuum arc remelting operation. Bevel gears Forgings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... The material was found to be a typical Cr-Mo-V steel, and it met the property requirements. No evidence of temper embrittlement was found. The analyses showed that the observed flaws were present in the original forging and attributed them to lack of ingot consolidation. A series of actions, including...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001112
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in the distribution of the residual stresses, which, aided by low fracture toughness due to the poor quality of the beam, resulted in failure. It was recommended that segregation be avoided in cast ingots used for I-beam manufacture by implementing a better quality-control procedure. Segregations IS-226...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0089752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... rolled from fully killed ingots. Aqueducts Ductile brittle transition Fillet welds Joint design Piping Preheating Stress concentration Welding defects ASTM A572 grade 42 Type 2 Brittle fracture Joining-related failures A 208 cm (82 in.) ID steel aqueduct fractured circumferentially...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... correspond to the vertical axis of the original ingot. The crankshaft had not been stress-relieved after a welding operation had been carried out. The only satisfactory course to follow when dealing with a highly stressed part in which defects of the type in question are revealed during machining is to scrap...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of the fracture resulted from fatigue. Shallow oxidized regions adjacent to the inside surface of the bend indicated pre-existing cracks. A sulphur print on the edge of the bracket showed the material was rolled from a rimming steel ingot. The general appearance of the fracture, and the fact failure took place...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...-fatigue fissures which originated at a zone containing defects introduced at the time of manufacture. These may have had their origin in the ingot from which the plate was rolled or, alternatively, be indicative of a zone which suffered overheating and local burning at the time the forge weld was made...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., probably originating as a secondary pipe in the ingot which was subsequently displaced and forced into the wall of the vessel during the piercing operation. Gas cylinders Radiography Ultrasonic testing Low-alloy steel Transgranular fracture Metalworking-related failures The presence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... was there any indication of a pre-existing crack or major discontinuity at the point of origin. A sulfur print suggested the hook had been forged from a billet cogged down from an ingot of semi-killed steel. Failure of this hook was attributed to strain-age embrittlement of the material at the surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... evaluation revealed the presence of an alloy containing nickel and molybdenum in several ingots found on the bottom of the melter and on a drip which had solidified on the electrode sheath. This indicates that a major portion of the electrode assembly was exposed to a temperature of at least 1317 deg C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... that were flushed into the ingot mold. Although no true cracks were present, rejection of the stub axles was nevertheless justified. Slag streaks could reduce the strength of the stub axles and lead to the formation of fatigue fractures during operation. No recommendations were made. Axles Forgings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... through the pipe wall, at which juncture the amount of metal remaining intact was insufficient to withstand the pressure and sudden, violent failure occurred by shearing at the time of the explosion. Laminations in general have their origin in internal cavities within the ingot and such cavities may...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... for this purpose; in the Bessemer, a blast of air is used, while more recent processes make use of oxygen directly. If molten steel, after refining, is poured from the furnace into the ingot mould without further treatment a violent evolution of gas occurs, due to the reaction which takes place between...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the likelihood of pressure tube rupture when a crack is detected. All pressure tube off-cuts were examined for lamination flaws by ultrasonics and metallography. In-reactor, non-destruetive inspections of pressure tubes from the top of ingots which contained deep shrinkage pipes were made, to ensure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... G 0.04 0.10 0.53 0.014 0.012 9.40 0.26 0.015 0.008 200 t × 300 w × 400 h H 0.04 0.10 0.53 0.014 0.012 9.40 0.26 0.015 0.008 30 t × 300 w × 400 h (a) t , thickness; w , width; h , height; d , diameter Fig. 3 Schematic of the preparation of ingots...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
...; and as welded to the width of the girder, its transverse direction was the load-bearing direction. Because of the thickness of the plate, hot working apparently was not sufficient to break up the ingot rim pattern of heavy segregation. Metallographic examination indicates that this segregation coincided...