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Indentation

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001212
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Operation handles produced from C45 steel showed many fine cracks at the flame hardened noses. The cracks ran from the corners of indentations caused by the tool during alignment. Metallographic investigation showed the nose was overheated during flame hardening...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048134
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., in the horizontal and vertical planes during the testing. The fracture was revealed to have occurred in bend 2. An indentation, presumably caused by the bending tool during forming, at the inner surface of the bend where fracture occurred was revealed by microscopic examination. Spiral marks produced on springs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... demonstrated that roller bearing indentions on the axle journal, cross pin indentation on the end of the axle, and axle bending can be accounted for by spring energy release following axle failure. Pre-existing cracks in the induction hardened axle are small and are often difficult to see without a microscope...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
...Abstract Abstract The bone cement failed at the distal end of the prosthesis stem of femoral head prosthesis six months after implantation. A small indentation on the lateral contour of the stem was visible where the stem had broken. The degree of loosening (gap between the lateral stem contour...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... of harmful liquids, and stray electric currents. Most common modes of failure include flaking or pitting (fatigue), cracks or fractures, creep, smearing, wear, softening, indentation, fluting, and corrosion. The modes of failure are illustrated with examples from practice. Roller bearings Rolling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047956
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of lubricant prior to which the bearings were ultrasonically cleaned in trichloroethylene to ensure extreme cleanness. Equally spaced indentations resembling true brinelling were revealed by careful examination of the bearing raceways. It was concluded that the ultrasonic energy transmitted to the balls...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... steel within the ranges given in ASTM A 186. Visual examination of the broken wheel revealed that cracks ran parallel with the base of the lower row of numbers stamped with heavy indentation on the web section. Microscopic examination showed the metal in the web, rim, and tread to be in the normalized...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... a support member about 25 mm thick and attached to the fuselage by a single bolt. Brinelling (plastic flow and indentation due to excessive localized contact pressure) was observed on the upper surface of the spring where the forward and rear edges of the spring contacted the support member...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract A series of resistance spot welds joining Z-shape and C-shape members of an aircraft drop-tank structure failed during ejection testing. The members were fabricated of alclad aluminum alloy 2024-T62. The back surface of the C-shape members showed severe electrode-indentation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of corrosion, and fractures (on both rods) near indentations imparted by retaining clamps. The observations suggest that surface roughness and bending defects initiated cracking that led to the fatigue failure of the compromised rod, followed some time later by the overload fracture of the second rod...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of indentation is operator dependent and results in variation Microindentation hardness testing Vickers hardness Hardness Result does not always correlate to bulk material hardness Values vary with applied loads Requires a polished surface Knoop hardness Hardness Result does not always correlate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The indenter and guide have been a source for issues over the years. While the problems have never been major this is a classic example of the importance of considering the problem as a whole and if this had been done the final outcome may have been reached sooner. However, with the increase in global...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...). 1.6×. The support ring ( Fig. 4 ) showed evidence of approximately equispaced indentations on the inner circumference of one face. The width and spacing of these indentations corresponded approximately to the width and spacing of the splines on the shaft. Examination of the ends of the shaft...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
..., as shown in Figure 1(a) , the fracture being wholly of the cleavage type. On the sides normal to the plane of the link several indentations parallel to the line of fracture were visible and it was from one of these that the fracture had originated. In all probability these indentations resulted from...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Vickers indentation site on a glass surface. The dark lines are radial cracks that are normal to the surface; the bright areas are subsurface lateral cracks that are nearly parallel to the surface. Optical microscope; reflected light (differential interference contrast) Fig. 19 Vickers...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.../1.3261715 3. Lawn B.R. , Indentation of Ceramics with Spheres: A Century after Hertz , J. Am. Ceram. Soc. , Vol 81 , 1998 , p 1977 – 1994 10.1111/j.1151-2916.1998.tb02580.x 4. Roesler F.C. , Brittle Fracture near Equilibrium , Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) , Vol B69 , 1956...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... ). There was a superficial indentation adjacent to the origin on wheel 31 ( Fig. 1d ), and there were superficial periodic blemishes on the fillet of nose wheels 67, 217, and 250 ( Fig. 1e ). The indentation on wheel 31 could have contributed to the cracking found in the tube well; however, the blemishes at the fillet...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... showing cracking along white-etching localized shear zone Fig. 28 Scanning electron micrographs showing the three modes of abrasive wear typically found in steels: (a) low-stress scratching, (b) higher-stress gouging, and (c) impact or indentation Fig. 29 Bands of normalized wear rate...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... toughness Microstructure Corrosion resistance The influence of the parameters listed in Table 2 can be explained by their effect on the mechanism by which material is removed from a worn surface. The simplest model of abrasive wear is one in which rigidly supported hard particles indent...