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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Military aircraft use a cartridge ignition system for emergency engine starts. Analysis of premature failures of steel (AISI 4340) breech chambers in which the solid propellant cartridges were burned identified corrosion as one problem with an indication that stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... ignited within a closed chamber (the breech chamber/cartridge chamber assembly) and the rapidly expanding gases provide the energy to start the engine, and the pneumatic mode, in which air from another engine or a ground support compressor provides the necessary energy. The cartridge mode has two distinct...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001408
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
..., as it would present to the gas a surface area considerably greater than that of a homogeneous material. Chlorine gas Combustion Compressors Corrosion environments Ignition Lubrication Piston rods Fe-0.35C (Other, general, or unspecified) corrosion It is known that under suitable...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0049796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Problems with materials compatibility were encountered in pyrotechnically driven devices used in a number of ordnance applications requiring rapid mechanical actuation. A fine bridgewire is located in contact with the chemical pyrotechnic, and the charge is ignited by electrical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... complete and definite model explaining all the processes that take place during electrical discharge, the best supported theory is based on a thermoelectric phenomenon. The theory assumes the presence of four phases: ignition, formation, discharge, and ejection (collapse) [ 6 ]. Based on this theory, one...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001488
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... subsequent investigation that the cylinder used by the operator for re-charging the receiver contained not air but oxygen the spontaneous ignition temperature of many petroleum derivatives is considerably lower than in air and contact of oxygen with organic or easily oxidised material such as oily or greasy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091726
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... vessels in both systems as a result of laboratory tests on corrosion, stress corrosion, and impact ignition with N 2 O 4 . Qualification testing of the SPS pressure vessel for 46 days of exposure under a membrane stress of 690 MPa (100 ksi) was completed without problems in mid-1964. In January 1965, an...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001440
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., it would be ignited, thus accounting for the explosion that preceded the fire. The flame from the explosion would serve to ignite the stream of escaping gas, and the resultant jet of flame could have impinged on the hand wheel of the regulating valve. When the temperature of the vessel end in the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... initially at room temperature provided efficient cooling of the chamber. The 3.0-cm (1.1875-in.) outer-diameter shank served as the fuel inlet, and ignition took place within the main portion of the chamber. Accordingly, the shank was the coolest portion of the chamber and was not expected to be exposed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... chemical composition of the failed steering arms was determined using optical emission spectroscopy for most of the alloy elements and a Leco carbon/sulfur analyzer for carbon and sulfur content. The latter analysis required the use of drill flakes for ignition and the subsequent analysis of the combustion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
.../receiver in the air compressor. This resulted in the expulsion of an oil/air mixture that ignited on hot engine components. The unit had been in operation for approximately 5 years, and all components were original equipment manufacturer (OEM). The location where the hose failed is shown in Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the breaker panel was intentionally left off by the homeowner. Molten aluminum at approximately 593 °C (1100 °F) sputtered out of the service panel and ignited combustibles located on the floor below. Improper tightening was also the most probable cause in incident 3 and may have contributed to...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... differences between coolant inlet and outlet temperatures were constant during the endurance test, and there was no leakage and coolant contamination in oil analysis. 20 h before engine stopping, the ECU sensed a knock, and the engine torque and power decreased because of retarding of the ignition time. After...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... wear and delamination of surface by a thermomechanical fatigue process ( Fig. 5 ). After a forging hit, the lubricant develops the “diesel effect,” expands, and ignites with air. This process causes damage in the form of “blowpipe holes,” and wear emphasizes these holes, which then tends to retain the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the tank, providing an approximately 5.6 cm (2.2 in.) diameter opening through which the tank emptied. As the liquid and gaseous propane spread, it was eventually ignited by the pilot light of a hot water heater in a mobile home roughly 120 m (400 ft) away. The fire flashed back, burning off the area...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... through-wall rupture in coil 6, occurred as attempts were again made to bring the system on line. During operation, burners were ignited on demand, causing the system to thermally cycle approximately two to four times per hour from a low thermal demand condition (nominal 2 million BTU/hr) to a high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Fe-0.3C-1.2Mn Stress-corrosion cracking Hydrogen damage and embrittlement In the fall of 1978, a natural gas pipeline ruptured, and subsequently, the escaping gas was ignited, apparently by a hot water heater pilot light in a nearby trailer park. The resultant fire burned for...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... unit) contains a small (1.5 mm diam) hole sufficient to create the back pressure described previously yet release the gas generated from the ignition of the powder. The larger hole in the nut releases a greater amount of gas if the nut is not properly tightened to the end of the barrel. This latter...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... arced wiring was the cause of the fire. The investigator may use cognitive reasoning to come to the conclusion that a defect in the wiring allowed current to flow between the conductors, which heated the conductor insulation and surrounding combustible materials to a sufficient temperature that ignition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... stage for the mechanism for increasing the tank pressure which during loading would normally not have exceeded 827 kPa (120 psi) and during transport would not have exceeded the vapor pressure of butadiene (considerably below 827 kPa, or 120 psi). The most likely source of ignition was static...