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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... experienced the same service conditions developed no corrosion. Corrosion was linked to forming defects that provided sites for localized corrosion, and to lack of steam drying after cleaning, which increased susceptibility to general corrosion. Corrosion products Hydroxides Potassium compounds Steam...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... that the sodium was present before the chromate conversion treatment was performed. A review of the manufacturing procedures showed that sodium hydroxide was used as a cleaning agent before the chromate conversion coating. Failure cause was that apparently the sodium hydroxide had not been properly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-induced stress-corrosion cracking. Sodium was detected by EDS in the internal deposits and the base of a gouge in a carbon steel tube and in the internal deposits of the stainless steel tube. The sodium probably formed sodium hydroxide with carryover moisture and caused the gouging, which was further...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A type 430Ti stainless steel flue gas expansion joint cracked because of caustic-induced stress-corrosion cracking. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope analysis of the fracture surface deposits revealed the presence of sodium and potassium—caustics in hydroxide form. Primary fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... Abstract A stainless steel pipe transferring hot white liquor solution of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfite, developed leaks adjacent to the welds within four years of service. The stainless steel pipe was AISI type 304 and welded with E308 weld electrodes. The service temperature was 190 deg...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0048819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... Abstract A large pressure vessel that had been in service as a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) absorber developed cracks and began leaking at a nozzle. The vessel contained a 20% aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH), potassium carbonate (K2CO3), and arsenic. The vessel wall was manufactured of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... Abstract Gross wastage and embrittlement were observed in plain carbon steel desuperheaters in five new Naval power plants. The gross wastage could be duplicated in laboratory bomb tests using sodium hydroxide solutions and was concluded to be caused by free caustic concentrated by high heat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract The onset of leakage adjacent to two butt welds in a 2 in. bore pipe was traced to the development of fine cracks. The pipe carried 40% sodium hydroxide solution. The actual temperature was not known, but the pipeline was steam traced at a pressure of 30 psi, equivalent to a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... many others cracks on the internal surface which did not penetrate to the outside. Microscopical examination showed multiple intergranular, tree-like cracking typical of stress-corrosion cracking. Concentration of sodium hydroxide occurred in the bellows unit and the stress-corrosion cracking which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... inspection, and micrographs with deep etching in aqueous 20% sodium hydroxide) supported the conclusion that failure on both wheel halves was by fatigue caused by a forging defect resulting from abnormal transverse grain flow. The crack in the first wheel half occurred during service, and the surfaces became...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract High-level radioactive wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials are kept in large underground storage tanks made of low-carbon steel. The wastes consist primarily of concentrated solutions of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide. Each of the tanks is equipped with a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... polished and etched first with Nital and subsequently with 1:10 sodium hydroxide, As can be seen from Figs. 1 , the slivers consisted of a core that was etched by Nital, and a metallic case that was not etched by Nital, but was dissolved by sodium hydroxide. Under the microscope the core showed the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... approach to failure analysis to confirm that the cracking was caused by a caustic stress-corrosion cracking mechanism is presented. Caustic cracking Chemical processing equipment Compressor blades Sodium hydroxide, environment 4320 UNS G43200 Stress-corrosion cracking Severe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001624
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... on the corrosion debris via FTIR. The resulting spectrum ( Fig. 3 ) contained absorption bands that are indicative of metallic oxides, hydroxides, and water. These compounds are commonly found in corrosion deposits of metals. Fig. 3 Analysis of the corrosion debris from the sensor coil wire by...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... approximately 80 percent sodium hydroxide, 20 percent sodium sulfite with chloride concentrations at 2 grams per liter. The operating pressures in the inlet cone were up to 1.2 MN/m 2 (170 psig). The inlet cone had developed leaks within a year of service. Liquid penetrant inspection showed significant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...-cracking as it often appears in brass after heavier cold deformation. Fig. 6 Course of crack in microstructure; etchant: copper ammonium chloride ammonium hydroxide. 100× Therefore a test was conducted according to DIN 1785 to check for sensitivity to stress cracking. This consists in immersing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... repair was chosen, and the rotor was returned to service; it has performed for more than 1 year without further incident. Compressors Sodium hydroxide, environment Steam turbines ASTM A470 grade 4 UNS K22878 Stress-corrosion cracking Intergranular corrosion An A-470 (Grade 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... times more likely to occur in high heat-transfer areas [ 2 ] can result in overheating of the tube because the thermal conductivity of the deposits is low. The caustic corrosion involves the corrosive interaction of sufficiently concentrated sodium hydroxide with metal to produce distinct...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... nickel plate conforming to ASTM B-162 Anode top plate 50 mm (2 in.) thick carbon steel conforming to IS-2062 Outer and inner cathode shells Carbon steel (A 519—MT 1010) The operating parameters were: Electrolyte composition 5 to 10 wt % potassium hydroxide in the feedwater Cell...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... of pipe. Cl ions, which are plentiful in seawater, attack and damage the passive film and activate the surface of the metal at that point. As the corrosion starts at the tiny active sites, hydrolysis and precipitates of the less-soluble Fe 2+ hydroxides produce increased concentrations of...