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Hydrogen reformers

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract A vessel made of ASTM A204, grade C, molybdenum alloy steel and used as a hydrogen reformer was found to have cracked in the weld between the shell and the lower head. Six samples from different sections were investigated. The crack was found to be initiated at the edge of the weld in...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A 150 mm (6 in.) diam, 1.6 mm (0.065 in.) thick alloy 800 1iner from an internal bypass line in a hydrogen reformer was removed from a waste heat boiler because of severe metal loss. Visual and metallographic examinations of the liner indicated severe metal wastage on the inner surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... embrittlement of the tube material occurred. From the test results, it is evident that, during the operation of the hydrogen plant, a gas carburizing reaction took place between the reformer gases and the stainless steel. The type 304 stainless steel inner shell quench sleeve and the support tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001735
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... service. The outlet hydrogen-rich gas resulting from the cracking of naphtha in the presence of steam had a temperature of approximately 850°C, the inlet temperature at the top of the tubes being 525°C. Sections were cut from the tube, which was a spindle cast A297 Grade HK 40 (25 Cr, 20 Ni, 0.4 C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... specifications. Petrochemical plants normally use reformer furnace units for a full range of processes, such as ammonia, methanol, and hydrogen production. These are gas- or oil-burning furnaces that contain heat-resistant tubing in which high-temperature reactions occur in the presence of a catalyst. The...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... furnaces are commonly used in petrochemical plants to produce hydrogen via a high-temperature reaction between steam and hydrocarbon gases in the presence of a catalyst. The reaction occurs inside heat-resistant, spun-cast tubes. These are high-chromium and nickel alloy tubes that are welded to the headers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... light to medium hydrocarbons in a certain ratio to steam in order to produce different synthesis gases (i.e. methanol, hydrogen, towngas, CO-CO 2 , oxoalcohols, or reduction gas). The heart of the steam reforming process is the primary reformer furnace. The design consists of two parallel cells, each...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001738
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... (typically made of HK40 or HP40+Nb) and flows down through each tube and is collected in a bottom manifold. The partially reformed gases contain hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and steam. Then the gases flow towards the riser (typically made of HP40+Nb or Supertherm), and from there into a...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... graphite deposition from the gas phase on these catalytically active metal particles (iron, nickel). Chemical reactions producing such high carbon activities, for example, in reformer applications, are: (Eq 1) Hydrogen reformer :   CH 4 + H 2 O ⇄ CO + 3 H 2 In a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...) Hydrogen reformer : CH 4 + H 2 O ↔ CO + 3H 2 In a temperature regime between 550 and 850 °C (1020 and 1560 °F), the prevailing gas composition could be due to the reactions: (Eq 2) Redox reaction : CO + H 2 ↔ 3H 2 O + C and (Eq 3) Boudouard reaction...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... explains the failure of pressure vessels with emphasis on stress-corrosion cracking, hydrogen embrittlement, brittle and ductile fractures, creep and stress rupture, and fatigue with examples. brittle fracture composite creep rupture ductile fracture fabrication failure analysis fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... N06601 Intergranular fracture Steam reforming of natural gas is considered the most economic process for industrial hydrogen production. By this process, a mixture of methane and steam forms hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide while flowing through a catalyst bed. Steam reforming is a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... cracking in mild steel are alkalies (hydroxides), nitrates and occasionally hydrogen sulphide or ammonia. We are informed that this particular process for the removal of CO 2 employed monoethanolamine solution. The substance is alkaline and may well act as inorganic alkalies in promoting this form of...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... sometimes used to provide the proper thermal conductance for effective transfer of heat from gas to liquid or from liquid to liquid. Fins on much of the tubing used in air coolers and hydrogen coolers are applied by soldering, brazing, or resistance welding; thus, the ability of the tube material to accept...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... oxidation Brittle fracture Hydrogen damage and embrittlement In the middle of the 1950's, an unusual type of corrosion made its appearance in several boilers in the Central Power Stations in the United Kingdom. In many instances it resulted in embrittlement and violent rupture of the generating tubes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... flaws Detection of incipient fatigue fracture in aircraft structures Monitoring of both fusion and resistance weldments during welding and cooling Determination of the onset of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) and hydrogen damage in susceptible structures Use as a study tool for the...