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Hydrochloric acid

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Post-service destructive evaluation was performed on two commercially pure zirconium pump impellers. One impeller failed after short service in an aqueous hydrochloric acid environment. Its exposed surfaces are bright and shiny, covered with pockmarks, and peppered with pitting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract A bent Ni-Cu Monel 400 alloy tube, which operated as part of a pipeline in a petrochemical distillery, failed by through-thickness cracking. The pipeline was used to carry a stream of gaseous hydrocarbons containing hydrochloric acid (HCl) into a reaction tower. The tower provided a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046966
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... Analysis (visual inspection, 100x/500x metallographic examination of sections etched with a mixture of ferric chloride, hydrochloric acid, and methanol, and bend tests) supported the conclusions that cracking of the airfoil sections was caused by thermal fatigue and was contributed to by low ductility due...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... area ( Fig. 1 ). Figure 2 shows a cross section through the bulge after a hydrochloric acid macroetch. The dark areas denote hydrogen damage. A large portion of the section away from the bulge suffered hydrogen damage. Fig. 1 Macrographs showing the external (a) and internal (b) surfaces of the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... heavy layer of oxide had accumulated on the fracture surface while the bolster was in storage, necessitating cleaning in hydrochloric acid prior to examination. Two distinct regions were noted, one being darker than the other. A heavy coating of epoxy paint was stripped, and rough grinding near what...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... removed. This was followed by hand polishing with alumina no. 1 on a felt cloth and then with alumina no. 3 on velvet. The surface deformation was removed between whiles by etching with 50% alc. hydrochloric acid. A vibration machine proved very useful for the fine polishing although it took longer than...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... hydrochloric acid, and 5 drops of glycerin for about 3 min). Samples of the same materials with fractured surfaces were analyzed in a SEM with tungsten filament operating at 20 kV. Figure 1 shows an overview of the fractured screws used as implant components, while Fig. 2 presents the austenitic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... The presence of chlorine may have resulted from pickling of the steel in hydrochloric acid before galvanizing. The hardness values and fracture behavior in the small radius bend areas were not typical of the base material in the straight-leg regions. SEM examination revealed no evidence of fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... (trichloroethane degreasers, hydrochloric acid pickling solutions, sodium chloride water softener salts, bleaches, etc.), the source of the chlorine contamination was traced to the sodium hypochlorite cleaning solution. Therefore, it was reasoned that the maintenance procedure was not correctly followed. After...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... application of preventive measures. The fundamentals of corrosion are described in more detail in Ref 2 . However, as a brief introduction, the electrochemical nature of corrosion can be illustrated by the attack on zinc by hydrochloric acid (HCl). When zinc is placed in dilute hydrochloric acid, a vigorous...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... steel is attacked. Besides, high contents of chlorides in water can concentrate in some regions, enabling the production of hydrochloric acid and consequently corrosive attack on the steel. The pitting holes act as stress inducers, leading to the reduction of the resistant section and consequently...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... process will initiate as uniform corrosion with the formation of an electrolytic microcell between the graphite cathode and ferrite or pearlite anode ( Ref 9 , 10 ). The process can turn into a pitting mechanism if the microcells develop enough to produce acidic gradients within the micropits where the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... The high-temperature reactions of halohydro-carbon refrigerants leading to the destruction of aluminum impellers and other aluminum parts in centrifugal compressors have been well documented ( Ref 1 ). The reaction dissociates the refrigerant into carbon and hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids, which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... after hydrochloric acid cleaning have resulted in chloride stress corrosion cracking in 304 and 347 stainless steel ( 14 ) in the past. Since there was evidence of grain boundary etching prior cleanup as a possible example of how Cl could have entered the pipe; the results of the CERT tests do indicate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... a solution of inhibited hydrochloric acid for 10 minutes in an ultrasonic bath. A series of charpy vee-notch impact test specimens were machined from selected studs and full fracture appearance transition temperature, FATT, curves were obtained. Small bar samples, 25mm long, 2mm × 2mm, were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... resulting pressure differential across the blocked section creates large axial loads on the thrust bearing and can result in bearing failure. Major corrosive deposits found on turbine blades include [ 13 ]: sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride, hydrochloric acid, sodium silicate, sodium carbonate, sodium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... solutions are to be used, it is useful to try them first on a piece of similar material. This surface should be examined and recorded before the cleaning medium is applied and then again examined afterward to ensure that no attack takes place. For steel fracture surfaces, a 6 N hydrochloric acid inhibited...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... casting at ~5% airfoil span. Etchant: 33% glycerol, 33% nitric acid, 33% acetic acid, and 1–3% hydrofluoric acid. Casting contains no grain boundaries. Source: Ref 20 Fig. 13 (a) Heater tube that failed due to stress rupture. (b) and (c) Stress-rupture voids near the fracture. Source: Ref 18...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., particularly in hydrochloric acid. As little as 100 ppm of hydrogen in tantalum cause severe embrittlement by hydride formation. Zirconium and its alloys are highly susceptible to embrittlement by hydride formation. Absorption of gaseous hydrogen into zirconium and its reaction with zirconium to produce...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Fixed Equipment in the Refining Industry,” identifies five types of SCC (chloride, caustic, polythionic acid, wet H 2 S-SCC, and ammonia) experienced by crude units in petroleum refineries ( Fig. 2 , Ref 6 ). In industrial and residential plumbing systems, SCC can occur in brass plumbing components...