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Hydrochloric acid

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Post-service destructive evaluation was performed on two commercially pure zirconium pump impellers. One impeller failed after short service in an aqueous hydrochloric acid environment. Its exposed surfaces are bright and shiny, covered with pockmarks, and peppered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A bent Ni-Cu Monel 400 alloy tube, which operated as part of a pipeline in a petrochemical distillery, failed by through-thickness cracking. The pipeline was used to carry a stream of gaseous hydrocarbons containing hydrochloric acid (HCl) into a reaction tower. The tower...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0046969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... inspection, 2.7x micrographic examination on sections etched with ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid in methanol) supported the conclusions that the blades failed by hot-corrosion attack. Variation in rate of attack on coated blades was attributed to variation in integrity of the aluminide coating, which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001696
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... hydrochloric acid that settles on exposed surfaces as they are being subjected to severe mechanical loads imparted during lift-off. Failure analyses were performed on 304 stainless steel tubing that ruptured under such conditions, while carrying various gases, including nitrogen, oxygen, and breathing air...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046966
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... method. Analysis (visual inspection, 100x/500x metallographic examination of sections etched with a mixture of ferric chloride, hydrochloric acid, and methanol, and bend tests) supported the conclusions that cracking of the airfoil sections was caused by thermal fatigue and was contributed to by low...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0047529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... to the outside of the head completed the groove for the circumferential attachment weld. Investigation (visual inspection and actual size views etched in hot 50% hydrochloric acid) supported the conclusion that cracking occurred in the HAZ in the head of the original design, originating in the sharp corner...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, and chlorine. Investigation into the processing history of the part showed the tenacious oxide film formed by the affinity of niobium for oxygen - even when heat treated in a vacuum – was removed with a combination of strong acids: nitric, hydrochloric, hydrofluoric...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the flange disk for macroscopic metallographic examination. it was pickled with diluted hydrochloric acid. This caused the erosion of a coarse-meshed network that coincided with the primary grain boundaries in the globular solidified inner zone, but cut across the dendrites in the crystallized outer zone...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... stainless steel. The three modes can be distinguished by how and where the pit starts and how the hydrochloric acid (HCl) collects. The morphology or surface conditions, contours, waviness, and relative surface area of each mode strongly influences pit shape and depth as well as route and growth rate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are described in more detail in Corrosion , Volume 13 of the ASM Handbook. However, as a brief introduction, the electrochemical nature of corrosion can be illustrated by the attack on zinc by hydrochloric acid. When zinc is placed in dilute hydrochloric acid, a vigorous reaction occurs; hydrogen gas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the external and internal surfaces of the bulge. Note the thick deposit buildup found on the internal surface of the bulged area ( Fig. 1 ). Figure 2 shows a cross section through the bulge after a hydrochloric acid macroetch. The dark areas denote hydrogen damage. A large portion of the section away from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Green death Hydrochloric acid Sulfuric acid Hastelloy C-276 UNS N10276 Pitting corrosion “Green Death” is a corrosive medium used to test for pitting resistance composed of 11.9% H 2 SO 4 + 1.3% HCl + 1% FeCl 3 + 1% CuCl 2 . The solution is heated to boiling, 103 °C (217 °F), for the test...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... line contained rough grooves from hot trimming of the flash and from snag grinding ( Fig. 1c and d ). Forging 2 contained the most severe of such markings. Longitudinal and transverse sections were prepared and etched with hydrochloric acid at a temperature of 71 to 77 °C (160 to 170 °F...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001170
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... descaled with dilute hydrochloric acid with inhibitor. Approx. 1 × The fracture apparently propagated from the base of the thread and then followed the thread in a circumferential direction ( Figs. 1 and 2 horizontal at bottom). It then broke through radially at the top across the ring due...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
.... The selection of the pipe length to be examined contained the fractured circumferential seam. The fracture was so well hidden that its course was made visible only after etching with dilute hydrochloric acid ( Fig. 1 ). It corresponded almost exactly to the transition of the welding seam into the pipe. Fig...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046972
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...-filled crack (arrow). 500x. (b) Section taken through the leading edge of another blade showing oxide-filled crack following a grain boundary. 250x. Both etched with ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid in methanol. Some thermal fatigue cracks are intergranular and originate at points where grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... problems include airborne contamination, dust, pollutions, acid rain, and proximity to a seacoast. Designing to avoid retention of such contaminants is critical. Thus, design specifications for construction projects must include normal and extremes of environmental conditions. Design change can also...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the defect in some regions or greater depth of the material having been removed in machining or in centreless grinding. The observations of the magnetic crack detection test were confirmed by deep etch test in 10% hydrochloric acid. Metallographic examination of transverse sections through the defective...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... by etching with 50% alc. hydrochloric acid. A vibration machine proved very useful for the fine polishing although it took longer than by hand. The best edge definition was achieved using the vibration method. All the etching experiments involved a grain surface attack and hence produced a rather strong...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the bolster was in storage, necessitating cleaning in hydrochloric acid prior to examination. Two distinct regions were noted, one being darker than the other. A heavy coating of epoxy paint was stripped, and rough grinding near what appeared to be a fatigue failure was revealed. Figures 1 , 2 , 3 , 4...